Latest Research on wastewater treatment : Mar 2022

State of the art of biogranulation technology for wastewater treatment

Biogranulation technology developed for wastewater treatment includes anaerobic and aerobic granulation processes. Anaerobic granulation is relatively well known, but research on aerobic granulation commenced only recently. Many full-scale anaerobic granular sludge units have been operated worldwide, but no report exists of similar units for aerobic granulation. This paper reviews the fundamentals and applications of biogranulation technology in wastewater treatment. Aspects discussed include the models of biogranulation, major factors influencing biogranulation, characteristics of biogranules, and their industrial applications. This review hopes to provide a platform for developing novel granules-based bioreactors and devising a unified interpretation of the formation of anaerobic and aerobic granules under various operation conditions.[1]


Advantages and disadvantages of techniques used for wastewater treatment

During the last 30 years, environmental issues about the chemical and biological contaminations of water have become a major concern for society, public authorities and the industry. Most domestic and industrial activities produce wastewaters containing undesirable toxic contaminants. In this context, a constant effort must be made to protect water resources. Current wastewater treatment methods involve a combination of physical, chemical and biological processes, and operations to remove insoluble particles and soluble contaminants from effluents. This article provides an overview of methods for wastewater treatment, and describes the advantages and disadvantages of available technologies.[2]


Electrochemical technologies in wastewater treatment

This paper reviews the development, design and applications of electrochemical technologies in water and wastewater treatment. Particular focus was given to electrodeposition, electrocoagulation (EC), electroflotation (EF) and electrooxidation. Over 300 related publications were reviewed with 221 cited or analyzed. Electrodeposition is effective in recover heavy metals from wastewater streams. It is considered as an established technology with possible further development in the improvement of space-time yield. EC has been in use for water production or wastewater treatment. It is finding more applications using either aluminum, iron or the hybrid Al/Fe electrodes. The separation of the flocculated sludge from the treated water can be accomplished by using EF. The EF technology is effective in removing colloidal particles, oil & grease, as well as organic pollutants. It is proven to perform better than either dissolved air flotation, sedimentation, impeller flotation (IF). The newly developed stable and active electrodes for oxygen evolution would definitely boost the adoption of this technology. Electrooxidation is finding its application in wastewater treatment in combination with other technologies. It is effective in degrading the refractory pollutants on the surface of a few electrodes. Titanium-based boron-doped diamond film electrodes (Ti/BDD) show high activity and give reasonable stability. Its industrial application calls for the production of Ti/BDD anode in large size at reasonable cost and durability.[3]


Industrial wastewater treatment technology, Second edition

The author has organized the book by specific pollutant or class of pollutants for reference. For each topic there is a description of sources and typical industry discharge levels of the pollutant, the appropriate treatment technologies and their applications and limitations, as well as the relative costs of each. Major Sections: Aluminium; Arsenic; Barium; Cadmium; Hexavalent Chromium; Trivalent Chromium; Copper; Cyanide; Fluoride; Iron; Lead; Manganese; Mercury; Nickel; Organic and Ammonia Nitrogen; Nitrite and Nitrate Nitrogen; Oil and Grease; Toxic Organics; pH Control; Phenol; Selenium; Silver; Total Dissolved Solids; Zinc.[4]


Developments in wastewater treatment methods

Wastewaters are waterborne solids and liquids discharged into sewers that represent the wastes of community life. Wastewater includes dissolved and suspended organic solids, which are “putrescible” or biologically decomposable. Two general categories of wastewaters, not entirely separable, are recognized: domestic and industrial. Wastewater treatment is a process in which the solids in wastewater are partially removed and partially changed by decomposition from highly complex, putrescible, organic solids to mineral or relatively stable organic solids. Primary and secondary treatment removes the majority of BOD and suspended solids found in wastewaters. However, in an increasing number of cases this level of treatment has proved to be insufficient to protect the receiving waters or to provide reusable water for industrial and/or domestic recycling. Thus, additional treatment steps have been added to wastewater treatment plants to provide for further organic and solids removals or to provide for removal of nutrients and/or toxic materials. There have been several new developments in the water treatment field in the last years. Alternatives have presented themselves for classical and conventional water treatment systems. Advanced wastewater treatments have become an area of global focus as individuals, communities, industries and nations strive for ways to keep essential resources available and suitable for use. Advanced wastewater treatment technology, coupled with wastewater reduction and water recycling initiatives, offer hope of slowing, and perhaps halting, the inevitable loss of usable water. Membrane technologies are well suited to the recycling and reuse of waste water. Membranes can selectively separate components over a wide range of particle sizes and molecular weights. Membrane technology has become a dignified separation technology over the past decennia. The main force of membrane technology is the fact that it works without the addition of chemicals, with relatively low energy use and easy and well-arranged process conduction. This paper covers all advanced methods of wastewater treatments and reuse.[5]


Reference

[1] Liu, Y. and Tay, J.H., 2004. State of the art of biogranulation technology for wastewater treatment. Biotechnology advances, 22(7), pp.533-563.

[2] Crini, G. and Lichtfouse, E., 2019. Advantages and disadvantages of techniques used for wastewater treatment. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 17(1), pp.145-155.

[3] Chen, G., 2004. Electrochemical technologies in wastewater treatment. Separation and purification Technology, 38(1), pp.11-41.

[4] Patterson, J.W., 1985. Industrial wastewater treatment technology.

[5] Sonune, A. and Ghate, R., 2004. Developments in wastewater treatment methods. Desalination, 167, pp.55-63.

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