Antiulcerogenic effect of methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis: an experimental study
The ulcer protective potential of methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (EOE) was assessed in different acute gastric ulcer models in rats induced by aspirin, ethanol, cold restraint stress and pyloric ligation and healing effect in chronic gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid in rats. EOE, 10–50 mg/kg administered orally, twice daily for 5 days showed dose-dependent ulcer protective effects in all the above acute ulcer models (36.0–98.3% protection, P<0.2 to P<0.001) and significant ulcer healing effect in dose of 20 mg/kg after 5 (control ulcer index: 20.2±2.3 mm2/rat, % healing 59.6%, P<0.001) and 10 (control UI: 11.0±1.7, % healing 65.5%, P<0.01) days treatment. Further study on gastric mucosal factors showed that it significantly decreased the offensive factors like acid (acid output-control 118.7±12.1 μEq/4 h, EOE% decrease 65.9%, P<0.01) and pepsin (peptic output-control 738.8 μmol/4 h, EOE% decrease 46.2%, P<0.001) and increased the defensive factors like mucin secretion (TC:P ratio-control 1.21±0.15, EOE% increase 95.0%, P<0.01), cellular mucus (TC:P ratio-control 1.16±0.13, EOE% increase 53.4%, P<0.05) and life span of mucosal cells (DNA content of gastric juice-control 77.3±8.7 μg/m per 100 g body weight, EOE% decrease 42.1%, P<0.05). EOE showed significant antioxidant effect in stressed animals (control UI 35.8±2.5, antioxidant status: LPO 0.58±0.03 nmol MDA/mg protein, SOD and CAT 227.8±6.3 and 18.4±1.2 U/mg protein respectively; EOE% decrease in UI 88.2%, mucosal LPO 69.0%, SOD 53.1% and increase in mucosal CAT 59.8%, P<0.001 respectively) and did not have any effect on cell proliferation in terms of DNA μg/mg protein or glandular weight. The results showed that EOE had significant ulcer protective and healing effects and this might be due to its effects both on offensive and defensive mucosal factors. 
Antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Hypericum triquetrifolium Turra aerial part
The antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Hypericum triquetrifolium Turra (Hypericaceae) aerial part and of flavonoids isolated therein, I3,II8-biapigenin, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, kaempferol-3-O-glycoside, (−)-epicatechin and hypericin, was evaluated. The IC50 resulted between 0.062 and 1 mg/ml. 
Cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of Methanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa
The use of medicinal plants as raw materials in the production of drugs is again gaining popularity. Hibiscus sabdariffa is widely taken in the South-western part of Nigeria for the treatment of various diseases. Aqueous-methanolic extract of H. sabdariffa was investigated for its phytochemical con-stituents, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity using brine shrimps lethality assay. The extract was found to contain cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins andalkaloids. It exhibited antibacterial activities (MIC 0.30 ± 0.2- 1.30 ± 0.2 mg/ml) againstStaphylococcus aureus, Bacillus stearothermo-philus, Micrococcus luteus, Serratia mascences, Clostridium sporogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas fluorescence. It was also found to be potent against brine shrimps with LC50 value of 55.1 ppm. The present results support the use of this plant in the treatment of diseases like abscesses, bilious conditions, cancer and coughs in traditional medicine and also suggest the possibility of isolating antibacterial and anticancer agents from Hibiscus sabdariffa. 
Effects of Methanolic Extract of Citrullus lanatus Seed on Experimentally Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia
Aims: To investigate the effects of methanolic extract of Citrullus lanatus seed (MECLS) on experimentally induced benign prostate hyperplasia.
Study design: Animal model of experimentally induced prostatic hyperplasia.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Ikenne Campus, Ikenne, Ogun State, Nigeria, between May 2010 and August 2010.
Methodology: Twenty adult male Wistar rats weighing about 135-180g were randomly divided into four groups of five animals each. Group I, Normal control (NC) was given corn oil as placebo 1g/Kg BW; Group II, Hormone treated control (HTC), Groups III, and IV hormone and extract treated (HTEC), received continuous dosage of 300µg and 80µg of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) respectively on alternate days for three weeks subcutaneously in the inguinal region while the extract treated received an additional 2g/Kg BW (low dose) and 4g/Kg BW (high dose) of extract orally for 4 weeks after the successful induction of prostate enlargement. Immediately after induction some animals were randomly selected and sacrificed for gross inspection of prostate enlargement and sperm count evaluation, these procedures were repeated again after four weeks of extract treatment. Portion of the prostate were taken and processed routinely for paraffin embedding and stained with H&E.
Results: Hormone treatment did not affect the body weight of the animals; however it caused a significant decrease in the weight of the testes and rendered all the rats azoospermia. In addition, treatment with extracts caused a significant decrease in the enlarged prostate, seminal vesicle and testes sizes in a dose related manner (P<0.05) compared to the hormone treated control. Histological examination of prostate revealed that the methanolic extract caused significant changes in its histo-architecture. There was an increase in the fibromuscular layer, decrease in prostatic acini size, shrinkage of epithelium, and no infolding of the epithelium into the lumen, rather, it appeared flat compared to the very distinct columnar epithelium of the hormone treated control and conspicuousness of the acini. The extracts further caused a dose dependent reduction in the prostates weight. PSA level was significantly lowered in both HTEC at low and high doses (P<0.05) in dose dependent manner.
Conclusion: Administration of MECLS for one month reduced the prostate size significantly (P< 0.05), both at high and low dose, but could not restore the initial size of shrunken testes and severe oligospermia caused by the hormones. The histological studies clearly establish MECLS as a potential candidate in management of androgen dependent conditions like benign prostate hyperplasia. 
Protective Effect of Methanolic Extract of Hylocereus polyrhizus Fruits on Carbon Tetra Chloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rat
Aims: This research investigated the Protective effect of methanolic extract of Hylocereus Polyrhizus fruits on carbon tetra chloride-induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss-albino rat.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, IIUC, Chittagong, Bangladesh and Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Gangneung Institute, Gangneung, Korea, between August 2011 to October, 2012.
Methodology: Hepatoprotective potential was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injured animal model using male albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum levels of biochemical markers like ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin, total protein, total cholesterol, triglycerides.
Results: The methanolic extract of Hylocereus polyrhizus at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight (p.o.) significantly protected the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver toxicity in albino rat model. The activity of extract was also comparable to that of silymarin, a known hepatoprotective drug.
Conclusion: The study suggests that oral intake of Hylocereus polyrhizus fruits extract enhances the defense status against liver injury.
 Sairam, K.C.H.V., Rao, C.V., Babu, M.D., Kumar, K.V., Agrawal, V.K. and Goel, R.K., 2002. Antiulcerogenic effect of methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis: an experimental study. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 82(1), pp.1-9.
 Conforti, F., Statti, G.A., Tundis, R., Menichini, F. and Houghton, P., 2002. Antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Hypericum triquetrifolium Turra aerial part. Fitoterapia, 73(6), pp.479-483.
 Tolulope, M., 2007. Cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 1(1), pp.009-013.
 Olamide, A.A., Olayemi, O.O., Demetrius, O.O., Olatoye, O.J. and Kehinde, A.A., 2011. Effects of methanolic extract of Citrullus lanatus seed on experimentally induced prostatic hyperplasia. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, pp.171-179.
 Islam, A.M.T., Chowdhury, M.A.U., Uddin, M.E., Rahman, M.M., Habib, M.R., Uddin, M.G.M. and Rahman, M.A., 2013. Protective effect of methanolic extract of Hylocereus polyrhizus fruits on carbon tetra chloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rat. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, pp.500-507.