Farm irrigation system evaluation: a guide for management
An introductory general chapter is followed by chapters entitled: Sprinkler-lateral irrigation; Perforated pipe sprinkle irrigation; Orchard sprinkler irrigation; Centre pivot sprinkle irrigation; Traveling sprinkler irrigation; Gun and boom sprinkler irrigation; Trickle irrigation; Furrow irrigation; Border-strip irrigation; Basin irrigation; Pond irrigation. A glossary and seven appendices are also included. 
Automated Irrigation System Using a Wireless Sensor Network and GPRS Module
An automated irrigation system was developed to optimize water use for agricultural crops. The system has a distributed wireless network of soil-moisture and temperature sensors placed in the root zone of the plants. In addition, a gateway unit handles sensor information, triggers actuators, and transmits data to a web application. An algorithm was developed with threshold values of temperature and soil moisture that was programmed into a microcontroller-based gateway to control water quantity. The system was powered by photovoltaic panels and had a duplex communication link based on a cellular-Internet interface that allowed for data inspection and irrigation scheduling to be programmed through a web page. The automated system was tested in a sage crop field for 136 days and water savings of up to 90% compared with traditional irrigation practices of the agricultural zone were achieved. Three replicas of the automated system have been used successfully in other places for 18 months. Because of its energy autonomy and low cost, the system has the potential to be useful in water limited geographically isolated areas. 
Remote Sensing and Control of an Irrigation System Using a Distributed Wireless Sensor Network
Efficient water management is a major concern in many cropping systems in semiarid and arid areas. Distributed in-field sensor-based irrigation systemsoffer a potential solution to support site-specific irrigation management that allows producers to maximize their productivity while saving water. This paper describes details of the design and instrumentation of variable rate irrigation, a wireless sensor network, and software for real-time in-field sensing and control of a site-specific precision linear-move irrigation system. Field conditions were site-specifically monitored by six in-field sensor stations distributed across the field based on a soil property map, and periodically sampled and wirelessly transmitted to a base station. An irrigation machine was converted to be electronically controlled by a programming logic controller that updates georeferenced location of sprinklers from a differential Global Positioning System (GPS) and wirelessly communicates with a computer at the base station. Communication signals from the sensor network and irrigation controller to the base station were successfully interfaced using low-cost Bluetooth wireless radio communication. Graphic user interface-based software developed in this paper offered stable remote access to field conditions and real-time control and monitoring of the variable-rate irrigation controller. 
Automatic Controlling System of Drip Irrigation Based on GSM
Due to the population increase over the world, every field and every of a department of life are updating themselves to increase the efficiency and output product. So the development of agriculture and agriculture-related sections must also be developed. Lack of rain and ultimately a lack of water scarcity is being observed in many areas of the world. The other side aspect is that there are a numerous number of leakages in the line, which waste much water. There is a need for automation, which is the ultimate solution of the problems. This paper emphasizes on this issue and resolves the issues and gives the valuable practical solutions. Automated techniques are the best solution for minimizing the power, reduce waste of water and increase the efficiency. To obtain the optimal method to irrigate crops, the Automated irrigation system is developed. The system contain to a temperature sensor, humidity sensor and soil moisture sensor, which is put in the root region of the plants. The significance of this paper includes the propose an efficient method in the field of irrigation systems by automatically monitor and control system. We suggested an innovative GPRS (general packet radio service). Which controlled embedded system for irrigation. the automatically system dependent on some parameters such as temperature, humidity and the water level in the soil by reading from the sensors and can automatically irrigate in the field without the involvement of farmer. Information is exchanged between far end and designed system via GPRS module.
Impact of Water Losses and Maintenance of Canal Irrigation System on Agriculture (Case Study: Urmar Minor of Warsak Gravity Canal Pakistan)
A study was conducted in May-August 2005 to assess the conveyance losses, seepage losses, maintenance status and impact of water losses and maintenance on the agricultural yield in case of irrigation channels. In this regard, a case study was conducted on three watercourses, at Urmar Minor of Warsak Gravity Canal irrigation system in Pakistan. The Inflow-outflow and ponding methods were used to determine conveyance and seepage losses respectively. Local farmers were interviewed to inquire about the maintenance condition of the selected water courses. A considerable decrease i.e. more than 50% in the yield of wheat and maize was observed while moving along the channels from head to tail. The irrigation system of Urmar Minor is evaluated as a guiding study and remedial measures are suggested to handle widely spread reduction in agricultural production due to these losses. 
 Merriam, J.L. and Keller, J., 1978. Farm irrigation system evaluation: A guide for management. Farm irrigation system evaluation: a guide for management.
 Gutiérrez, J., Villa-Medina, J.F., Nieto-Garibay, A. and Porta-Gándara, M.Á., 2013. Automated irrigation system using a wireless sensor network and GPRS module. IEEE transactions on instrumentation and measurement, 63(1), pp.166-176.
 Kim, Y., Evans, R.G. and Iversen, W.M., 2008. Remote sensing and control of an irrigation system using a distributed wireless sensor network. IEEE transactions on instrumentation and measurement, 57(7), pp.1379-1387.
 Hadi, A.R., 2017. Automatic controlling system of drip irrigation based on GSM. Archives of Current Research International, pp.1-8.
 Saeed, T.U. and Khan, T.A., 2014. Impact of water losses and maintenance of canal irrigation system on agriculture (case study: Urmar minor of Warsak gravity canal Pakistan). Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, pp.550-562.