Profitability of Groundnut Production in Michika Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria
The study examined the profitability of groundnut production in Michika Local Government Area of Adamawa State. Gross Margin analysis was strictly used. From the costs and return analysis, it is found that the total cost of production by farm size per hectare in the area is N133, 812.68; the gross margin per hectare is N221348.68 while the average net return per hectare is N40, 097.63. The findings also shows that, farmers in the area earned an average net revenue ranging between N17, 217.00 and N445, 011.35 depending on farm size which indicated that groundnut production is a profitable venture in the study area. Farmers should maintain output per hectare at a high level with the family labor at their disposal through good management and efficient use of modern inputs. Farmers with no family members should join communal labor arrangements where they will benefit from it for their farm operations.
Growth and production of groundnut
The groundnut or peanut is one of the important legume crops of tropical and semiarid tropical countries, where it provides a major source of edible oil and vegetable protein. Groundnut kernels contain 47-53% oil and 25-36% protein. The crop is cultivated between 40ºN to 40ºS of the equator. Groundnut is a self pollinated crop whereby flowers are produced above ground and, after fertilization, pegs move towards the soil, and seed-containing pods are formed and developed underneath the soil. The productivity of groundnuts varies from 3500 kg/ha in the United States of America to 2500 kg/ha in South America, 1600 kg/ha in Asia, and less than 800 kg/ha in Africa. This is due mainly to various abiotic and biotic constraints. Abiotic stresses of prime importance include temperature extremes, drought stress, soil factors such as alkalinity, poor soil fertility and nutrient deficiencies. Groundnuts grow best in light textured sandy loam soils with neutral pH. Optimum temperature for their growth and development ranges from 28 to 30 ºC; the crop requires about 500-600 mm of well distributed rainfall. The main yield limiting factors in semiarid regions are drought and high temperature stress. The stages of reproductive development prior to flowering, at flowering and at early pod development, are particularly sensitive to these constraints. Apart from N, P and K, other nutrient deficiencies causing significant yield losses are Ca, Fe and B. Biotic stresses mainly include pests, diseases and weeds. Among insects pests pod borers, aphids and mites are of importance. The most important diseases are leaf spots, rusts and the toxin-producing fungus Aspergillus. 
Adoption of IPM groundnut production technologies in Eastern Uganda
Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L) is the second most widely grown food legume in Uganda. Currently average yield of groundnuts at farm level is about 800 kg ha-1, but up to 3,000 kg ha-1 can be achieved. The most important constraints to its production are pests and diseases. Integrated pest management (IPM) technologies have been developed and demonstrated to farmers in Mayuge district. However, many farmers in the district have not adopted these technologies, for reasons not well known. The study was done to establish factors affecting adoption of IPM technologies. Socio-demographic and groundnut production data were collected for the second crop season of the year 2000 from a purposively and randomly selected sample of 76 farmers consisting of both IPM technology adopters and non-adopters. Adopters used improved technologies while the non-adopters used traditional technologies for groundnut production. Data analysis using the probit model indicated that adoption was significantly influenced by education (P< 0.1), family size (P< 0.05), association membership (P<0.01), extension visit (P<0.05), access to credit (P<0.05), size of cultivable land (P<0.01) and household income (P< 0.05). A descriptive analysis indicated that lack of seed, lack of information about the technologies, costly chemical, labour intensiveness, and lack of land were reasons for non-adoption. Intensification of extension services, farmers joining associations, establishment of farmer field schools (FFS), provision of credit to farm families by government, improvement of the seed delivery system and enforcement formal education as well as adult literacy programme are recommended to enhance adoption.
Productivity and Profitability of Groundnut Production (Arachis hypogea L.) in Lafia Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
This study assessed the economics of groundnut production in Lafia Local Government Area of Nasarawa State. Structured questionnaire was used to generate primary data for the study. Descriptive statistics, gross margin analysis, and double-log production function were employed in the analysis. Results revealed that majority of the respondents (57.5%) were relatively young and fell within the active age (25 – 45).Male respondents marginally dominated groundnut production at 51.7% and majority (78.3%) were married. Results further revealed that significant (78.3%) number of the respondents had below 10 inhabitants in their households. Educationally, 50.8% of respondents were educated. The net farm income per hectare was N14,355 and with a return on invested determined at 0.81implying that for every naira invested, the farmers makes 81 kobo (N0.81)and the cost –benefit ratio was calculated at 1.81 indicating that groundnut production is a viable and beneficial enterprise in the area. The double-log production function showed that the coefficient of multiple determinants (R2) was 0.536 which means that 54% of the variables were accounted for by the explanatory variable included in the model, while the F-value was 6.890. It was observed that; labour, seed, fertilizer and farm-size were significant while herbicide was not. Major constraints faced by the farmers were inadequate capital, high cost of labour, transportation, fertilizer, problem of pest and disease, poor storage facilities. Despite these constraints, the farmers made profit. Therefore, groundnut production could be one of the poverty alleviating enterprise, if well-articulated. It is recommended that: Storage facilities should be provided so that surplus groundnut can be stored to avoid spoilage, improve varieties of groundnut should be developed and made available to the farmers so that their yield can increase, and Farmers should form themselves into social groups so that they can create an organized market for their produce.
Alectra vogelii, a Threat to Bambara Groundnut Production in Singida and Dodoma Regions, Tanzania
Aims: To document the occurrence and effect of Alectra vogelii on bambara groundnut yield in Tanzania.
Place and Duration of Study: Singida and Dodoma regions, Tanzania between 4th to 20th April 2014.
Methodology: The number of A. vogelii and of bambara groundnut plants per 2 m x 2 m quadrant in triplicates was counted per farm from nine different villages. The A. vogelii infestation was scored as 0 = no infestation, 1 = 1-5 (less severe), 2 = 6 – 10 (severe) and 3 = > 10 (very severe). The bambara groundnut yield loss was determined as (C-A)/ C x 100% or (C-B)/C X 100%, where C = Number of pegs in a non-infested plant, A =Number of pegs in a wilted A. vogelii- infested plants and B = Number of pegs in yellowing or stunted- A. vogelii infested plants
Results: The average number of A. vogelii was 55 plants infesting about 26 plants per quadrant. This number scored 3 (very severe) in a 0-3 scale. The highest number of pegs (90, 75 and 68) per plant was recorded in the non- infected bambara groundnut plants in Iramba, Dodoma urban and Ikungi Districts, respectively, while smaller number or no pegs was recorded in yellowing-A. vogelii infected or wilted-A. vogelii infected plants translating to a yield loss of 97.3–100%.
Conclusion: A. vogelii is a threat to bambara ground nut production in Tanzania. Yield losses of up to 100% have been recorded and this can affect growers who depend on the crop for their protein source. As no report from the literature showing the occurrence of A. vogelii in bambara groundnut in the country, we document its first report and effect on the yield of the crop in Tanzania. Future studies to determine distribution of A. vogelii in other bambara groundnut-growing areas are needed.Reference
 Taru, V.B., Kyagya, I.Z. and Mshelia, S.I., 2010. Profitability of groundnut production in Michika local government area of Adamawa state, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 1(1), pp.25-29.
 Prasad, P.V., Kakani, V.G. and Upadhyaya, H.D., 2010. Growth and production of groundnut. UNESCO Encyclopedia, pp.1-26.
 Mugisha, J., Ogwal-o, R., Ekere, W. and Ekiyar, V., 2004. Adoption of IPM groundnut production technologies in Eastern Uganda. African crop science journal, 12(4), pp.383-391.
 Audu, S.I., Girei, A.A., Onuk, E.G. and Onyenye, P.O., 2017. Productivity and profitability of groundnut production (Arachis hypogea L.) in Lafia local government area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, pp.1-11.
 Mbega, E.R., Massawe, C.R. and Mbwaga, A.M., 2016. Alectra vogelii, a Threat to Bambara Groundnut Production in Singida and Dodoma Regions, Tanzania. Advances in Research, pp.1-8.