Food engineering and dairy technology
This book deals with basic principles of up-to-date processing methods, and their effects on food products, with emphasis on dairy technology. Drinking water, effluent treatment, cleaning and sterilization are also discussed. Chapters are: Principles of flow mechanics and residence time distributions in pipe systems (pp. 8-27); Principles of heat transfer and thermodynamics (pp. 28-58); Centrifugation – separation – separation by cyclone (pp. 59-81); Ultrafiltration – reverse osmosis – electrodialysis (pp. 82-118); Emulsifying – homogenizing (pp. 119-138); Pasteurization – sterilization – heating methods (pp. 139-207); Evaporation (pp. 208-238); Climate – changes in the condition of moist air (pp. 239-254); Dry products – sorption properties and keeping quality (pp. 255-268); Drying – instantizing (pp. 269-328); Cooling – freezing – freeze-concentration (pp. 329-357); Distillation – extraction (pp. 358-375); Treatment by irradiation (pp. 376-382): Packaging – filling (pp. 383-409); Technology of buttermaking (pp. 410-425); Cheese manufacture (pp. 426-449); Technology of cultured milk products – special milk products – use of hydrocolloids (pp. 450-481); Manufacture of ice cream (pp. 482-493); Whey processing (pp. 494-504); Tanks – pumps – stirrers – mixers (pp. 505-529); Cleaning – sanitizing – sterilizing (pp. 530-560); Water – effluent treatment (pp. 561-576); Physical data – tables of numerical values (pp. 577-595). A 16pp. bibliography and 8pp. subject index are also provided. 
Ultrasonics in food engineering. Part I: Introduction and experimental methods
The basic ideas underlying the use of ultrasound in non-destructive testing are reviewed with a special emphasis on their relevance to food engineering. Sound velocity is a valuable engineering tool because of its relative ease of measurement, ease of interpretation of the consequent data and its greater accuracy than attenuation measurements. It is a non-destructive, non-invasive, non-intrusive technique. Low-intensity applications are reviewed and their potential in the measurement of physical properties is emphasised. Such measurements include the determination of adiabatic compressibility, rigidity and, in two-phase systems, particle size and dispersed-phase volume fraction. Experimental techniques which the authors have found useful for measurements in food systems are described and the accuracy of available techniques is compared. 
Vacuum impregnation and osmotic dehydration in matrix engineering: Application in functional fresh food development
Health benefits are one of the specific issues that will greatly influence the food industry in the next few years. Functional foods are products that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional content of nutrients, or through other added physiologically active components (PAC). Fruits and vegetables are increasingly being consumed because of their appreciated nutritional and fresh properties. The enrichment of these products with minerals, vitamins or other PAC can be a good choice to develop functional foods. Vacuum impregnation (VI) allows to introduce controlled quantities of a solution in the porous structure of fruit and vegetable (matrix). This solution can contain PAC, aw or pH depressors, antimicrobials, etc., in order to formulate functional, stable, fresh-like products. The feasibility of VI for a great quantity of fruits and vegetables is discussed by means of analysing their response to VI. Porosity and VI effectiveness of impregnated products were observed by Cryo-SEM. A model to determine the concentration level of PAC in the impregnating solution was established in order to formulate functional foods with different calcium and iron salts which could represent a determined percentage of the recommended daily intake of these minerals. 
Food Processing by Pulse Electric Field: A Review
The aim of the present study is to know about the effects of pulse electric field on food and compare it with other thermal methods of food processing. Food quality, food safety, convenience, freshness, healthy food, natural flavor and taste with extended shelf-life are the main criteria for the demand made by today’s consumers. Thermal methods of food preservation gives low quality food as compare to non-thermally treated food product. Pulse Electric Field processing (PEF) is a non-thermal processing technology to kill microorganism present in food by the application of short pulses of high electric fields for micro-seconds to milliseconds. It preserves the flavor of foods, vitamin content, and color of foods. PEF technology aims to offer consumers high-quality foods product. PEF technology is considered superior to traditional thermal processing methods because it greatly reduces detrimental changes in the sensory and physical properties of foods. It can be used in replace of thermally processed food because it produces the foods that have the good quality as compare to thermally processed food. 
Ohmic Heating for Food Products- A Review
Ohmic heating is a novel technology for food processing. This review paper summarizes the research progress and application in ohmic heating technology used in food processing. Ohmic heating is an electrical resistance heating method for the heat treatment of food products. When electric current passes through the food, the food heats up because of its internal electrical resistance. In this process heating rate depends upon the electrical conductivity and field strength. By this method a product undergoes a minimum structural damage, retain its nutritional value. This technique gives excellent processed quality products in minimum operating time. In this method electrical energy is converted into thermal energy. This is an uniform and rapid heating method. Electrical conductivity of food plays an important role in the ohmic heating process. Ohmic heating is good for liquid products, milk desserts, yoghurts, eggs, fruit juices, condiments, gelatine, wine, and hydrocolloids, etc which have electrical conductivity greater than 0.05 S/m. This method can be used in several sectors of food processing such as thawing process, blanching, sterilization, pasteurization, enzyme inactivation, expression, extraction, desalination and waste water treatment, rice bran stabilization, tofu making process, semi meat ball cooking and drying process etc. 
 Kessler, H.G., 1981. Food engineering and dairy technology. Food engineering and dairy technology.
 Povey, M.J.W. and McClements, D.J., 1988. Ultrasonics in food engineering. Part I: Introduction and experimental methods. Journal of Food Engineering, 8(4), pp.217-245.
 Fito, P., Chiralt, A., Betoret, N., Gras, M., Cháfer, M., Martı́nez-Monzó, J., Andrés, A. and Vidal, D., 2001. Vacuum impregnation and osmotic dehydration in matrix engineering: Application in functional fresh food development. Journal of Food Engineering, 49(2-3), pp.175-183.
 Kohli, D. and Shahi, N. C. (2017) “Food Processing by Pulse Electric Field: A Review”, Advances in Research, 9(2), pp. 1-6. doi: 10.9734/AIR/2017/32343.
 Patel, A. and Singh, M. (2018) “Ohmic Heating for Food Products- A Review”, Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 27(3), pp. 1-7. doi: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/40664.