Latest Research on Bromide : Jan 2022

Bromide in the Natural Environment: Occurrence and Toxicity

Bromide ion is widely used as a tracer to study water and solute transport because it does not adsorb to negatively charged soil minerals. Therefore is moves approximately as fast as water in soil. This property and the small natural background concentration make Br− an ideal tracer. It is much better than Cl−, which behaves similarly, but which is ubiquitous in the environment. Since Cl− is a component of several fertilizers, it usually is found in agricultural soils in concentrations too high to allow its use. When using chemicals in the environment, one must consider their fate and toxicity. This review summarizes data on the occurrence of Br− in the environment and its toxicology. Since Br− has low toxicity in mammals, most freshwater organisms, and most plants, its use in small-scale field studies should not endanger the biota. However, its application on a larger scale requires a careful evaluation of the concentration to be expected in ground and surface water. Based on the toxicity data, a quality criterion for groundwater of 1 mg Br− L−1 was established in the literature. To avoid the risk of chronic toxicity, the concentration of Br− water should not exceed the proposed criterion.[1]


A simplified method for cyanogen bromide activation of agarose for affinity chromatography

Agarose can be activated by adding cyanogen bromide, dissolved in acetonitrile, to beads suspended in a solution of sodium carbonate. The necessity for manual titration and the use of a pH meter are thus eliminated. Activation for 1 min results in coupling capacities comparable to those reported for the titration method. The coupling capacity is influenced by the initial carbonate concentration and by the duration and temperature of the activation reaction. The coupling capacities of the activated gels are very reproducible.[2]


Dielectric Relaxation of Isoamyl Bromide

The complex dielectric constant of isoamyl bromide has been measured at 1, 3, and 9 kMc between —75° and 25°C. Complex plane plots indicate an asymmetric, skewed‐arc distribution of relaxation times, with the shape of the distribution function not being appreciably temperature dependent. A defect diffusion model is proposed to explain the dielectric behavior of this system. This model implies that the relaxation of a molecule is more probable immediately after one of its neighbors has relaxed than at an arbitrary time. A distribution of relaxation times is derived which, under the appropriate conditions, closely resembles that of the empirical skewed‐arc function.[3]


Simultaneous Determination of Hyoscine N- Butyl Bromide and Paracetamol by RP-TLC Spectrodensitometric Method

Aims: A simple RP-TLC Spectrodensitometric method was developed for determination of Hyoscine N-Butyl Bromide (HBB) and Paracetamol (PAR) either in bulk powder or in their pharmaceutical preparation.

Study Design: Validation study.

Methodology: In this method, HBB and PAR were separated on RP-18 W/ UV254 TLC plates using developing mobile phase consisting of methanol: citrate buffer (pH=1.5): triflouroacetic acid (70:30:0.1, by volume) at room temperature. Experimental conditions such as band size, slit width, different developing systems and scanning wavelength were carefully studied and the optimum conditions were selected. The obtained bands were then scanned at 210 nm. The two drugs were satisfactorily resolved with RF 0.60 ± 0.02 for HBB and 0.81 ± 0.02 for PAR. The validation of spectrodensitometric method was done regarding linearity, accuracy, precision, and specificity.

Results: Linearity of the proposed methods was evaluated and it was found to lie within the concentration range of 2.0-12.0 µg.band-1 for HBB and 2.0-14.0 µg.band-1 for PAR. Conclusion: The proposed method was successfully applied for determination of HBB and PAR in pure form and in their different pharmaceutical formulations. The method proved to be specific, accurate and selective.[4]


Biodegradation of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide and Methylparaben in Shampoo and Hair Dressing Salon Waste Using Bacteria Isolated from Sewage Treatment Sludge

The present study investigated the biodegradation of Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Methyl paraben (MP) both in Shampoo and hair dressing salon waste using bacteria isolated from Sewage treatment sludge. The biodegradation was carried out according to the OECD Guideline for ready biodegradability and was monitored by Standard Spectrophotometric methods. The results obtained indicated that these compounds were degraded biotically by simple bacteria identified using a Microgen Kit for bacteria characterization.: Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens degraded 98.3% of the initial CTAB level in the Standard CTAB solution on 13 days of incubation; Pseudomonas fluorescens andActinobacillus hominis degraded  96.7% of the initial CTAB level on 10 days of incubation and 92.0% of the original MP on 13 days of incubation in the Shampoo solution; Pseudomonas aeurogonisa and Klebsiella planticola degraded 95.3% of the initial CTAB level on 5 days of incubation and 94.7% of the original MP level on 4 days of incubation in the washing solution; Pseudomonas aeuroginosa and Salmonella typhi were found present in the Inoculum control. In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that the bacteria obtained from the sewage sludge can be used as a cost effective and environmentally friendly agent for the biodegradation of surfactants in sewage treatment processes.[5]

Reference

[1] March, S.C., Parikh, I. and Cuatrecasas, P., 1974. A simplified method for cyanogen bromide activation of agarose for affinity chromatography. Analytical biochemistry, 60(1), pp.149-152.

[2] March, S.C., Parikh, I. and Cuatrecasas, P., 1974. A simplified method for cyanogen bromide activation of agarose for affinity chromatography. Analytical biochemistry, 60(1), pp.149-152.

[3] Glarum, S.H., 1960. Dielectric relaxation of isoamyl bromide. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 33(3), pp.639-643.

[4] Ali, N.W., Gamal, M. and Abdelkawy, M., 2013. Simultaneous Determination of Hyoscine N-Butyl Bromide and Paracetamol by RP-TLC Spectrodensitometric Method. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, pp.472-484.

[5] Onuche, P.U., Okibe, F.G. and Ajibola, V.O., 2016. Biodegradation of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide and Methylparaben in Shampoo and Hair Dressing Salon Waste Using Bacteria Isolated from Sewage Treatment Sludge. Archives of Current Research International, pp.1-9.

Spread the love

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.