Vitamin/Mineral Supplement Use among Athletes: A Review of the Literature
Vitamin/mineral supplements are often used by athletes as ergogenic aids to improve performance. This paper reviews studies of the prevalence, patterns, and explanations for vitamin/mineral supplement use among athletes. Fifty-one studies provided quantitative prevalence data on 10,274 male and female athletes at several levels of athletic participation in over 15 sports. The overall mean prevalence of athletes’ supplement use was 46%. Most studies reported that over half of the athletes used supplements (range 6% to 100%), and the larger investigations found lower prevalence levels. Elite athletes used supplements more than college or high school athletes. Women used supplements more often than men. Varying patterns existed by sport. Athletes appear to use supplements more than the general population, and some take high doses that may lead to nutritional problems. Sport nutritionists should include a vitamin/mineral supplement history as part of their dietary assessment so they can educate athletes about vitamin/mineral supplements and athletic performance.
 Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Use Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Prostate Cancer
This population-based, case-control study in King County, Washington examined supplement use in 697 incident prostate cancer cases (ages 40–64) identified from the Puget Sound Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program registry and 666 controls recruited from the same overall population using random-digit dialing sampling. Participants reported their frequency of use of three types of multivitamins and single supplements of vitamins A, C, and E, calcium, iron, and zinc over the 2 years before diagnosis. Logistic regression analyses controlled for age, race, education, family history of prostate cancer, body mass index, number of prostate-specific antigen tests in the previous 5 years, and dietary fat intake. Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence limits) for the contrast of ≥7/week versus no use were as follows: multivitamins, 0.96 (0.73, 1.26); vitamin A, 0.59 (0.32, 1.06); vitamin C, 0.77 (0.57, 1.04); vitamin E, 0.76 (0.54, 1.08); calcium, 1.04 (0.61, 1.78); iron, 0.50 (0.13, 1.76); and zinc, 0.55 (0.30, 1.00). Odds ratios differed little when cases were stratified by stage of disease at diagnosis or by histopathological grade. There were significant dose-response effects for zinc and ordered dose-response trends for vitamins C and E. Overall, these results suggest that multivitamin use is not associated with prostate cancer risk, but use of individual supplements of zinc, vitamin C, and vitamin E may be protective. Further study is needed to investigate the direct role of these dietary supplements, as well as the role of lifestyle variables associated with supplement use, on prostate cancer risk.
 Vitamin/mineral supplement use: a telephone survey of adults in the United States
Vitamin/mineral supplement use in the United States was assessed through a national telephone interview survey of an age-stratified random sample of 2,991 adults 16 years old and older. A vitamin/mineral supplement was defined as any product containing one or more of 33 specific vitamins, minerals, or “miscellaneous dietary components.” Excluding pregnant/lactating women, 39.9% of the population consumed one or more supplements. Of those users, 52.4% consumed one supplement only; 10.9% consumed five or more (up to a maximum of 14 separate products). Confirming other research, above-average consumption of supplements occurred in the western United States. The most widely consumed product type was the single vitamin/miscellaneous dietary component (45.2% of supplement users). Vitamin C, either alone or in combination with other nutrients, was the most widely consumed nutrient (90.6% of supplement users). Use of supplements was more prevalent among women than among men in each of the three age groups examined: 16 to 24 years, 25 to 64 years, and 65 years and older. Although consumption of the B vitamins was more widespread among women than among men, more men than women consumed zinc, iodine, copper, magnesium, and manganese. There was a wide range of intake of both vitamins and minerals, which extended to 10 to 50 times the RDAs for individual nutrients.
 Proximate Composition and Mineral Content of the Land Crab Sudanonautes africanus
The proximate and valuable minerals were determined in freshwater crabs. Samples were collected from male and female exoskeleton, flesh and whole body. The samples were subjected to proximate analysis using methods recommended by the Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and with the aid of spectrophotometer for the determination of the mineral content of the crabs. The results showed that in the exoskeleton samples, crude protein was the highest in the male with value of 39.84±0.25% while in the flesh samples, carbohydrate was the highest in the male with 41.59±0.27% and in the whole body sample, and carbohydrate was the highest in the female flesh with 57.89±0.28%. Nine minerals were analyzed. Sudanonautes africanus was found to be rich in Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, and Phosphorus. Information on the nutrient composition of S. africanus is needed to encourage the processing, utilization and marketing of this commonest species of West Africa. Nutritive values recorded in this S. africanus suggest that the species could be employed as an alternative dietary supplement of protein and minerals.
 Moringa oleifera (Lam) as a Protein Supplement in Clarias gariepinus Diet
This experiment was carried out to investigate chemical properties of Moringa oleifera and the effects of dietary levels of Moringa oleifera leaves on the growth performance and feed utilization for Clarias gariepinus fry. The study was carried out in aquarium tanks, for a period of 8 weeks, in the months of April-May, 2013, at the Aquaculture Centre of the Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria. Biochemical analyses of samples were performed, at the Animal Science and Central Science Laboratories of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife. The trial diets were fed to triplicate groups (n=30) of C. gariepinus fry (average weight of 2.0g ±0.1). Fish samples were collected and individual weight and length were measured, biweekly. The MWG, FWG and FCR of the fish fed diets M0, M5, M10 were not significantly different (P>0.05) from one another, while these were significantly different (P=.05) from the performance of the fish fed M20 and M30 diets. The DWG and SGR of the Moringa meal-based diets were not significantly different (p>0.05) from any of the dietary treatments. The results indicate that Moringa oleifera leaf meal can be used to replace up to 10% of the fish meal in C. gariepinus fry diet, without adverse effects on survival and growth performance. Whereas, the higher replacing levels in diets significantly (p<0.05) reduced the growth and feed utilization parameters.
 Sobal, J. and Marquart, L.F., 1994. Vitamin/mineral supplement use among athletes: a review of the literature. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 4(4), pp.320-334.
 Kristal, A.R., Stanford, J.L., Cohen, J.H., Wicklund, K. and Patterson, R.E., 1999. Vitamin and mineral supplement use is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers, 8(10), pp.887-892.
 Stewart, M.L., McDonald, J.T., Levy, A.S., Schucker, R.E. and Henderson, D.P., 1985. Vitamin/mineral supplement use: a telephone survey of adults in the United States. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 85(12), pp.1585-1590.
 Omotayo, F., Adesola, M.F. and Abayomi, O.J., 2014. Proximate composition and mineral content of the land crab Sudanonautes africanus. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, pp.349-355.
 Adewumi, A.A., 2014. Moringa oleifera (Lam) as a protein supplement in Clarias gariepinus Diet. Advances in Research, pp.580-589.