Clinical aspects of immunology
Immunology is in a phase of rapid expansion. Until recently its main clinical applications were in the fields of infectious diseases (in the widest sense), hypersensitivity reactions and blood transfusion. Now the rapid advances in the recognition of autoimmune disease, and the urgent interest in host-versus-graft reactions and their modification, to mention but two of the more obvious examples, have made immunology a subject with which the clinician must become familiar. Until the publication of this book this was not easy and meant much time-consuming searching of the ever-increasing literature on the subject. This book then fills, most adequately, a real need. It is written principally for the clinician, to keep him abreast of recent developments, to outline the techniques involved in modern immunology so that not only may he understand the value of various contributions but also the work involved by any request he may make for immunological investigations and also which investigations are of value, and to point out fields where more work is needed. 
Invertebrate Ecological Immunology
Ecological immunology is a rapidly expanding field that examines the causes and consequences of variation in immune function in the context of evolution and of ecology. Millions of invertebrate species rely solely on innate immunity, compared with only 45,000 vertebrate species that rely additionally on an acquired immune system. Despite this difference in diversity, most studies of ecological immunology focus on vertebrates. Here we review recent progress derived largely from the mechanistic analysis of invertebrate innate immunity. Using this empirical base, we pose general questions in areas that are of central importance for the development of ecological immunology. 
DNA Vaccines: Immunology, Application, and Optimization
The development and widespread use of vaccines against infectious agents have been a great triumph of medical science. One reason for the success of currently available vaccines is that they are capable of inducing long-lived antibody responses, which are the principal agents of immune protection against most viruses and bacteria. Despite these successes, vaccination against intracellular organisms that require cell-mediated immunity, such as the agents of tuberculosis, malaria, leishmaniasis, and human immunodeficiency virus infection, are either not available or not uniformly effective. Owing to the substantial morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases worldwide, an understanding of the mechanisms involved in generating long-lived cellular immune responses has tremendous practical importance. For these reasons, a new form of vaccination, using DNA that contains the gene for the antigen of interest, is under intensive investigation, because it can engender both humoral and cellular immune responses. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which DNA vaccines elicit immune responses. In addition, a list of potential applications in a variety of preclinical models is provided. 
Clinical Features of Immunological Dysregulation in Common Variable Immunodeficiency in Iran
Background: Common Variable Immune Deficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency with significant clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and immunological characteristics of CVID patients in Isfahan city, Iran. 
COPD: Immunopathogenesis and Immunological Markers
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease of the lungs characterised by progressive and irreversible airflow limitation associated with chronic inflammation. Despite extensive research, the immunopathogenesis of COPD is still not fully elucidated. In this review, we outline the current understanding of the pathophysiology of COPD with a particular focus on chronic inflammation and the role of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and macrophages in the disease, describe the exhaled breath condensate, a novel method of detecting inflammatory biomarkers, and suggest novel biomarkers to better characterise the immunopathogenesis of COPD. 
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 Gurunathan, S., Klinman, D.M. and Seder, R.A., 2000. DNA vaccines: immunology, application, and optimization. Annual review of immunology, 18(1), pp.927-974.
 Sherkat, R., Ali-Hassanzadeh, M., Eskandari, N., Hakemi, M.G., Esmaeil, N. and Rezaei, N., 2015. Clinical Features of Immunological Dysregulation in Common Variable Immunodeficiency in Iran. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, pp.647-653.
 Sng, J.J. and Thomas, P.S., 2015. COPD: immunopathogenesis and immunological markers. Advances in Research, pp.221-235.