News Update on HIV Infection Research: Dec – 2019

HIV Infection and Dementia

One of the characteristics of end-stage HIV infection is dementia, the precise causes of which remain elusive. during a Perspective, Gartner debates the evidence for the hypothesis that the trigger for the initiation of HIV-associated dementia is that the activation of monocytes within the bone marrow and their transmigration into the brain. [1]

Neocortical damage during HIV infection

Clinical and pathologicals evidence of subcortical central systema nervosum (CNS) damage is observed commonly in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis. Whether other CNS regions also are affected has not been well studied. We report neocortical damage in patients with HIV encephalitis. Using quantitative techniques, we demonstrate statistically significant thinning of the neocortex, with a loss of huge cortical neurons. Qualitative and quantitative assessments of neocortical neuropil reveal a loss of synaptic density and vacuolation of dendritic processes. Failure to demonstrate an association of those changes with the presence of HIV antigens suggests that neocortical damage could also be an indirect effect of HIV infection of the CNS. [2]

Immunopathogenic Mechanisms of HIV Infection

A complex array of multiphasic and multifactorial immunopathogenic mechanisms are involved within the establishment and progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease.After primary infection, acute viremia occurs with wide dissemination of HIV. During this early viremic phase, the virus is trapped within the processes of follicular dendritic cells within the germinal centers of lymphatic tissue. Also, during this phase of primary infection, some patients show major expansions of certain subsets of CD8+ T cells that are identified by the expression of a specific variable region of the β chain of the T-cell receptor. These expansions are manifestations of responses to HIV which will be important in controlling the progression of HIV infection. additionally, inappropriate immune activation and elevated secretion of certain proinflammatory cytokines occur during HIV infection; these cytokines play a task within the regulation of HIV expression within the tissues. [3]

HIV infection and coronary heart disease: mechanisms and management

Antiretroviral therapy has largely transformed HIV infection into a chronic disease condition. As such, physicians and other providers caring for people living with HIV infection got to remember of the potential cardiovascular complications of HIV infection and therefore the nuances of how HIV infection increases the danger of cardiovascular diseases, including acute myocardial infarct, stroke, peripheral artery disease, coronary failure and sudden cardiac death, also as the way to select available therapies to scale back this risk. during this Review, we discuss the epidemiology and clinical features of disorder, with attention on coronary heart condition, within the setting of HIV infection, which incorporates a substantially increased risk of myocardial infarct even when the HIV infection is well controlled. [4]

Impact of Delay in Immune Response Activation on HIV Infection Dynamics

In this work, we propose an HIV infection model with cure of infected cells in eclipse stage and delay within the activation of immune reaction. the steadiness of the equilibria and therefore the existence of the Hopf bifurcation are investigated. Moreover, numerical simulations are administered for instance our theoretical results. [5]

Reference

[1] Gartner, S., 2000. HIV infection and dementia. Science, 287(5453), (Web Link)

[2] Wiley, C.A., Masliah, E., Morey, M., Lemere, C., DeTeresa, R., Grafe, M., Hansen, L. and Terry, R., 1991. Neocortical damage during HIV infection. Annals of Neurology: Official Journal of the American Neurological Association and the Child Neurology Society, 29(6), (Web Link)

[3] Fauci, A.S., Pantaleo, G., Stanley, S. and Weissman, D., 1996. Immunopathogenic mechanisms of HIV infection. Annals of internal medicine, 124(7), (Web Link)

[4] HIV infection and coronary heart disease: mechanisms and management
Priscilla Y. Hsue & David D. Waters
Nature Reviews Cardiology volume 16, (Web Link)

[5] Maziane, M., Lotfi, E., Hattaf, K. and Yousfi, N. (2017) “Impact of Delay in Immune Response Activation on HIV Infection Dynamics”, Journal of Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science, 21(4), (Web Link)

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