News Update on Dam Construction Research: Oct – 2019

A global boom in hydropower dam construction

Human population growth, economic development, climate change, and the need to close the electricity access gap have stimulated the search for new sources of renewable energy. In response to this need, major new initiatives in hydropower development are now under way. At least 3,700 major dams, each with a capacity of more than 1 MW, are either planned or under construction, primarily in countries with emerging economies. These dams are predicted to increase the present global hydroelectricity capacity by 73 % to about 1,700 GW. Even such a dramatic expansion in hydropower capacity will be insufficient to compensate for the increasing electricity demand. Furthermore, it will only partially close the electricity gap, may not substantially reduce greenhouse gas emission (carbon dioxide and methane), and may not erase interdependencies and social conflicts. [1]

Quantifying hydrologic impacts following dam construction along the Tana River, Kenya

Daily pre-dam and post-dam discharge information for Kenya’s largest watercourse, the Tana, were analysed victimization flood frequency analysis and computation of assorted indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHA). Results from these analyses indicated statistically vital. [2]

A spatial assessment of hydrologic alteration caused by dam construction in the middle and lower Yellow River, China

The ‘range of variability approach’ (RVA) and mapping technique are wont to investigate the spacial variability of hydrologic alterations (HA) because of dam construction on the center and lower Yellow River, China, over the past 5 decades. The impacts of climate variability on hydrological method are removed throughout wet and dry periods and also the focus is on the impacts of human activities, like dam construction, on hydrological processes. Results indicate the following: (1) The impacts of the Sanmenxia reservoir on the hydrologic alteration are comparatively slight with a mean HA worth of 0•48, ranking within the last place among the four massive reservoirs. (2) Xiaolangdi reservoir has considerably modified the natural flow regime downstream with mean HA worth of 0•56, ranking it in 1st place among the big reservoirs. [3]

Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin

More than 100 hydropower dams have already been inbuilt the Amazon basin and diverse proposals for any dam constructions square measure into consideration. The accumulated negative environmental effects of existing dams and projected dams, if created, can trigger huge hydrophysical and organic phenomenon disturbances which will have an effect on the Amazon basin’s floodplains, body of water and sediment plume. we have a tendency to introduce a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index to quantify the present and potential impacts of dams within the basin. the dimensions of predictable environmental degradation indicates the necessity for collective action among nations and states to avoid additive, sweeping impacts. [4]

Assessment of Land Use Changes and Impacts of Dam Construction on the Mbaa River, Ikeduru, Nigeria

This analysis was conducted so as to establish the impact of the world dam on the physical atmosphere of Mbaa stream exploitation Geographic system (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques. the precise objective was to use multi-temporal pictures to assess land use and land cowl changes likewise as confirm the extent of land degradation round the watershed as a results of the dam. Landsat seven ETM+ of 2000 of path 188 and row fifty six, and therefore the African nation Sat-X image of ordinal Dec 2011 were classified to spot the changes within the physical options of the watershed. The study unconcealed variations within the land cowl of the study space with land degradation and erosion in each the upstream and downstream area and submerging of farm lands in the upstream. [5]

Reference

[1] Zarfl, C., Lumsdon, A.E., Berlekamp, J., Tydecks, L. and Tockner, K., 2015. A global boom in hydropower dam construction. Aquatic Sciences, 77(1), (Web Link)

[2] Maingi, J.K. and Marsh, S.E., 2002. Quantifying hydrologic impacts following dam construction along the Tana River, Kenya. Journal of Arid Environments, 50(1), (Web Link)

[3] Yang, T., Zhang, Q., Chen, Y.D., Tao, X., Xu, C.Y. and Chen, X., 2008. A spatial assessment of hydrologic alteration caused by dam construction in the middle and lower Yellow River, China. Hydrological Processes: An International Journal, 22(18), (Web Link)

[4] Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin
Edgardo M. Latrubesse, Eugenio Y. Arima, Thomas Dunne, Edward Park, Victor R. Baker, Fernando M. d’Horta, Charles Wight, Florian Wittmann, Jansen Zuanon, Paul A. Baker, Camila C. Ribas, Richard B. Norgaard, Naziano Filizola, Atif Ansar, Bent Flyvbjerg & Jose C. Stevaux
Nature volume546, (Web Link)

[5] Iwuji, M. C., Iheanyichukwu, C. P., D. Njoku, J., I. Okpiliya, F., Anyanwu, S. O., Amangabara, G. T. and E. Ukaegbu, K. O. (2017) “Assessment of Land Use Changes and Impacts of Dam Construction on the Mbaa River, Ikeduru, Nigeria”, Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, 13(1), (Web Link)

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