News Update on Cyclic Voltammetry Research: Aug – 2019

Cyclic Voltammetry—“Electrochemical Spectroscopy”. New Analytical Methods (25)

Polarography continues to be the most effective legendary classical measure technique in electroanalytical chemistry. However, in recent years its position has been challenged by cyclic voltammetry (CV). straightforward diagnostic criteria and comparatively simply nonheritable measure techniques have hastened this development. Cyclic voltammetry has the any attraction of providing data not solely on the physical science of reaction processes however conjointly on the dynamics of heterogeneous electron‐transfer reactions and paired chemical reactions. The characteristic shapes of the voltammetric waves and their unequivocal position on the potential scale just about fingerprint the individual chemistry properties of reaction systems. For this reason the strategy has been labelled “electrochemical spectroscopy”. [1]

Cyclic voltammetry of polyaniline: interpretation of the middle peak

The peak that seems ofttimes within the middle of cyclic voltammetric curves of polyaniline is attributed to the presence of a compound containing phenazine rings. This peak seems throughout the chemical action of phenylamine at high potential and by oxidization of the compound additionally, at a better potential than the second voltammetric peak. The intermediate to blame for the formation of the cross-linked compound is perhaps thanks to the nitrenium phenylamine ion (C6H5NH+) and therefore the nitrenium of the polymer (-C6H4N+-). Experimental support for these interpretations is shown by the following: the intensity of the center peak will increase upon copolymerisation of the phenylamine with phenazine or m-phenylenediamine; this new compound are often ready in pure type by the oxidization of hydrazobenzene in NH4F•2.3 HF, which provides a awfully high concentration of the phenylamine nitrenium. sadly, such a two-dimensional compound that has structural units with phenazine rings, exhibits a awfully low conduction. [2]

Detecting Subsecond Dopamine Release with Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry in Vivo

Background: Intropin may be a potent neuromodulator within the brain, influencing a spread of impelled behaviors and concerned in many medical specialty diseases. Measurements of animate thing Intropin within the brains of experimental animals have historically targeted on a tonic timescale (minutes to hours). However, Intropin concentrations square measure currently legendary to fluctuate on a phasic timescale (subseconds to seconds).

Approach: Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry provides analytical chemical measurements of phasic Intropin signals within the rat brain.

Content: Procedural aspects of the technique square measure mentioned, with relevancy acceptable use and as compared with alternative ways. Finally, samples of knowledge collected exploitation fast-scan cyclic voltammetry square measure summarized, together with present Intropin transients and signals arising from electrical stimulation of Intropin neurons.

Summary: Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry offers period of time measurements of changes in animate thing Intropin concentrations in vivo. With its subsecond time resolution, micrometer-dimension abstraction resolution, and chemical property, it’s the foremost appropriate technique presently out there to live transient concentration changes of Intropin. [3]

Evaluation of a new lymphocyte proliferation assay based on cyclic voltammetry; an alternative method

Lymphocyte proliferation assays are wide wont to assess the cell-mediated immunity. Current in vitro testing ways that are getting used have intensive applications however still a lot of problematic, because of the technical quality and also the desires for specialised instrumentation and reagents. chemistry ways like cyclic voltammetry represent a really promising tool for the event of label-free in vitro assays of cell proliferation and viability. Here, a completely unique procedure supported voltammetric behaviours of proliferating cells was fictional. Results indicated that proliferation in cell cultures and blood are often monitored electrochemically exploitation cyclic voltammetry. within the comparison with quantitative chemical analysis (MTT) assay, cyclic voltammetry gave the simplest correlation with cell count knowledge over a variety of 1200–300,000 cells/well of a microplate. Besides the benefits of short assay period (4 hours) and also the rapidness, the chance use of contemporary blood while not more process, would offer a lot of correct results as a result of cells are observation in AN intact surroundings. Cyclic voltammetry assay is AN economical analytical methodology, which may give an easy platform for the chemistry study of white blood corpuscle proliferation. [4]

Measurement of Counter Electrode Potential during Cyclic Voltammetry and Demonstration on Molten Salt Electrochemical Cells

In typical cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements, the potential of the operating conductor (WE) is modified at a set scan rate w.r.t a reference conductor and also the current response to the potential stimuli recorded. The current-potential knowledge square measure successively associated with the chemical reaction behavior of the electro-active species within the solution on the we have a tendency to. The contribution of the counter conductor (CE) to the electrical signals has been suppressed deliberately to avoid its influence on the I-V characteristics of the we have a tendency to. However, coincidental mensuration of the counter conductor potentials throughout CV measurements will give helpful qualitative info on the chemistry process/es occurring at the metal and therefore facilitate within the comprehensive assessment of the chemistry process/es underneath question. This has been incontestible with metal and carbon WEs severally against carbon and metal CEs in CaCl2-x wt.% CaO melts (x = zero and 1) at 1173 K. The technique has been applied to CV cell with Nb2O5 pellet because the we have a tendency to against carbon metal in CaCl2 soften and also the results prove that  preliminary info on the electro-deoxidation of the chemical compound conductor can be achieved by the novel measurements. [5]

Reference

[1] Heinze, J., 1984. Cyclic voltammetry—“electrochemical spectroscopy”. New analytical methods (25). Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English, 23(11), pp.831-847. (Web Link)

[2] Genies, E.M., Lapkowski, M. and Penneau, J.F., 1988. Cyclic voltammetry of polyaniline: interpretation of the middle peak. Journal of electroanalytical chemistry and interfacial electrochemistry, 249(1-2), pp.97-107. (Web Link)

[3] Robinson, D.L., Venton, B.J., Heien, M.L. and Wightman, R.M., 2003. Detecting subsecond dopamine release with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in vivo. Clinical chemistry, 49(10), pp.1763-1773. (Web Link)

[4] Evaluation of a new lymphocyte proliferation assay based on cyclic voltammetry; an alternative method

Mohammad Nikbakht, Babak Pakbin & Gholamreza Nikbakht Brujeni

Scientific Reportsvolume 9, Article number: 4503 (2019) (Web Link)

[5] Sri Maha Vishnu, D., Sanil, N. and S. Mohandas, K. (2017) “Measurement of Counter Electrode Potential during Cyclic Voltammetry and Demonstration on Molten Salt Electrochemical Cells”, International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 15(1), pp. 1-13. doi: 10.9734/IRJPAC/2017/37175. (Web Link)

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