News Update on coleoptera April-21

[1] Folia entomologica hungarica

Taxonomic-systematic elaboration and zoogeographic-faunagenetical evaluation of the terricolous Scydmaenidae inhabiting the tropical South America, the temperate Valdivia and Jamaica of the Caribbean islands. The following nine new genera are described (Archiconnus, Napochomorphus, Euconnomorphus, Heteroscydmus, Pseudoraphes, Alloraphes, Pseudoconnus, Mimoscydmus, Microraphes), further six new subgenera (Conoscydmaenus and Parageoscydmaenus in genus Scydmaenus; Nudatoconnus and Valdivioconnus in genus Euconnus; Neoscydmus in genus Microscydmus; Parapseudoconnus in genus Pseudoconnus). 230 new species and subspecies are described in the following genera: Scydmaenus Latr. (44), Euconnus Thoms. (144), Archiconnus gen. n. (1), Homoconnus Sharp (4), Protoconnus Franz (6), Microscydmus Saulcy, Croiss. (12), Napochomorphus gen. n. (1), Euconnomorphus gen. n. (1), Hetroscydmus gen. n. (1), Stenichnus Thoms. (1), Pseudoraphes gen.n (2), Scydmoraphes Reitt. (1)Alloraphes gen. n. (4), Pseudoconnus gen. n. (4), Mimoscydmus gen.n. (1), Microraphes gen.n. (1). For the genera and subgenera rich in species keys are prepared based on external morphological characters, while the male genitalia are depicted in figures. Key is prepared for the genera belonging in the tribe Stenchini and two catalogues are given for the ascertained species of the tropics and Valdivia, respectively.

[2] A MULTIPLE FUNNEL TRAP FOR SCOLYTID BEETLES (COLEOPTERA)

The multiple funnel trap, an efficient, collapsible, non-sticky trap for scolytid beetles, consists of a series of vertically aligned funnels with a collecting jar at the bottom. The trap compared favorably with sticky traps and Scandinavian drainpipe traps for three species of ambrosia beetles and the mountain pine beetle. Minimum maintenance required for this trap allows for high efficiency in pheromone-based research, survey, and mass trapping of scolytid beetles.

[3] Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as bioindicators

One of the primary goals of research on bioindicators is to identifyspecies or other taxonomic units that would reliably indicate disturbances inthe environment, and reflect the responses of other species or the overallbiodiversity. However, there is no perfect bioindicator and selecting the mostsuitable one depends to a great extent on the goal of the survey. In this paperwe examine the suitability of carabids as bioindicators. Carabids are frequentlyused to indicate habitat alteration. They have been used in grasslands andboreal forests where species number and/or abundances have been noted to changealong a habitat disturbance gradient. A common trend is that large, poorlydispersing specialist species decrease with increased disturbance while smallgeneralist species with good dispersal ability increase. Some species are notaffected by moderate disturbance. There is, however, not enough research todetermine how suitable carabids are for biodiversity studies, or how well theyrepresent the response of other species. We conclude that carabids are usefulbioindicators, but as crucial understanding of their relationship with otherspecies is incomplete, they should be used with caution.

[4] Toxicity and Physiological Effects of Essential Oil from Agastache foeniculum (Pursh) Kuntze Against Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Larvae

Aims: It is acknowledged that many essential oils isolated from various plants can exert toxic activity against insect species. In the present study, the essential oil from aerial parts of Agastache foeniculum (Pursh) Kuntze (Lamiaceae) evaluated for its larvicidal and physiological effects against the larvae of Tribolium castaneum Herbst.
Place and Duration of Study: Place – Department of plant protection, Faculty of agriculture, Guilan university, Rasht, Iran. Duration – May, 2012 to January, 2013.
Methodology: The essential oil was isolated from aerial parts of A. foeniculum by hydrodistillation method with a Clevengertype apparatus. In Larvicidal bioassay, five concentrations of the essential oil were prepared with acetone as solvent. Control samples were treated only with pure acetone. Ten same-aged instars were randomly selected, placed with treated diets and kept at 27 ± 2ºC and 60 ± 5% RH. The experiment was repeated four times and insect mortalities were recorded after 24 h. The effects of essential oil on total carbohydrate, lipid and protein contents on the surviving larvae were assessed. Also, the responses of general esterase and glutathione S-transferase as two detoxifying enzymes to essential oil were investigated.
Results: A. foeniculum essential oil caused high mortality and the mortality was dose dependent i.e. with increasing of essential oil concentrations more mortality achieved. Furthermore, study on the effect of essential oil on total carbohydrate, lipid and protein contents demonstrated that all of them were decreased with increasing of concentrations. When A. foeniculum essential oil was applied, inhibition of esterase and glutathione Stransferase activities was observed.
Conclusion: It has been found that the essential oil of A. foeniculum may produce a great range of biological effects on T. castaneum larvae and can be a potent candidate for such insect pest management.

[5] Phytoconstituents and Insecticidal Activity of Different Solvent Leaf Extracts of Chromolaena odorata L., against Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

The chemical profiles of volatile compounds obtained from different leaf extracts of Chromolaena odorata L, were determined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography couples with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The hexane extract was characterized by abundance of phytol (23.1%), caryophyllene oxide (12.7%), germacrene D (9.0%) and (7.8%) and β-caryophyllene (8.2%). The major constituents of the chloroform extract were dodecyl acetate (13.6%), oleic acid methyl ester (11.2%), di-n-octyl phthalate (11.1%) and hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (6.6%). Phytol (11.1%), caryophyllene oxide (9.9%), g-muurolene (6.4%) and hexadecanoic acid (5.4%) were the main compounds of the ethyl acetate fraction. The main components of the methanol extract were hexadecanoic acid (11.2%), caryophyllene oxide (8.5%), α-terpineol (7.8%) and α-cubebene (7.7%). Overall, ubiquitous terpenes are less common when compared with previous investigation. However, fatty acids, aromatic compounds and diterpenoids contributed significantly to the major volatile fractions. The insecticidal sensitivity of different solvent leaf extracts of C. odorata towards the adults of S. zeamais after 96h exposure was found in the order: methanol > ethyl acetate > chloroform > hexane.

 

Reference

[1] Franz, H., 1980. Monographie der südamerikanischen Scydmaenidae mit Einschluss einiger mittelamerikanischer Arten (Coleoptera). Folia Entomologica Hungarica41(2), pp.39-264.

[2] Lindgren, B.S., 1983. A multiple funnel trap for scolytid beetles (Coleoptera). The Canadian Entomologist115(3), pp.299-302.

[3] Rainio, J. and Niemelä, J., 2003. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as bioindicators. Biodiversity & Conservation12(3), pp.487-506.

[4] Ebadollahi, A., Khosravi, R., Sendi, J.J., Honarmand, P. and Amini, R.M., 2013. Toxicity and physiological effects of essential oil from Agastache foeniculum (Pursh) Kuntze against Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae. Annual Research & Review in Biology, pp.649-658.

[5] Lawal, O.A., Opoku, A.R. and Ogunwande, I.A., 2015. Phytoconstituents and insecticidal activity of different solvent leaf extracts of Chromolaena odorata L., against Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). European Journal of Medicinal Plants, pp.237-247.

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