The purification, composition and specificity of wheat-germ agglutinin
The purification of wheat-germ antibody from business nutriment is delineate. By ion-exchange natural process 3 active proteins (isolectins) were separated, one amongst that was examined thoroughly. 2. The organic compound composition is uncommon, as 2 hundredth of residues ar half-cystine and twenty first ar glycine. not like most lectins and contrary to previous reports, this macromolecule isn’t a compound protein. 3. The potency of assorted saccharides as inhibitors of the agglutination reaction was investigated and from this the specificity of the binding web site was inferred. Of monosaccharides, solely derivatives of aldohexose with a 2-acetamido cluster and a free 3-hydroxyl cluster ar effective inhibitors, and glycosides of either anomeric configuration ar certain. Oligosaccharides ar way more powerful inhibitors of agglutination than ar monosaccharides. 4. it’s projected that the binding web site consists of 3 or four subsites with differing specificities, in a very cleft within the molecule resembling that projected for hen’s-egg-white muramidase. 
Wheat Germ Agglutinin MOLECULAR CHARACTERISTICS AND SPECIFICITY FOR SUGAR BINDING
Crystalline aliment antibody was ready from unprocessed wheat germ by a replacement purification procedure. Its purity and a few of its molecular characteristics were examined by variety of criteria. geological phenomenon analysis gave a mass of seventeen,000 ± 1,000 and a geological phenomenon constant of two.1 S once determined in zero.05 N HCl. At neutral pH, the antibody dimerizes with a mass of around thirty five,000 and a geological phenomenon constant of three.6 S. organic compound analyses indicate that the macromolecule contains a high quantity of glycine and half-cystine; none of the latter is gift as aminoalkanoic acid. 3 times crystallized antibody is destitute of neutral sugars. Equilibrium qualitative analysis experiments mistreatment N-acetyl-[1-14C]glucosamine indicate that the antibody has 2-binding sites for N-acetylglucosamine per mole of the peptide chain with a equilibrium constant of seven.6 X 10-4 M. This binding is very specific. The β-1,4 di- and trisaccharides of N-acetylglucosamine showed higher affinities with apparent dissociation constants of four.9 and 1.2 X 10-5 M, severally. 
The interaction of Ricinus communis agglutinin with normal and tumor cell surfaces
Two plant agglutinins were isolated and refined from castor-oil plant beans by affinity natural action. each of the agglutinins were repressed by sugars containing terminal β-d-galactose-like residues, however the smaller antibody (mol. wt close to sixty 000) was to boot repressed by sugars. The larger antibody (mol. wt close to one hundred twenty 000) was wont to specifically agglutinate many traditional and remodeled cell lines. The antibody systematically agglutinated remodeled cells at abundant lower concentrations than those needed to agglutinate normal cell lines unless the traditional cells were 1st treated with low concentrations of enzyme. the importance of the amendment in agglutinability of remodeled or trypsinized cells is mentioned in relevancy the topology of the cell surface. 
Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive mac-2 binding protein as an age-independent fibrosis marker in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
The assessment of liver pathology is important as a result of it correlates with mortality risk in soft illness} disease (NAFLD). This study aims to look at whether or not blood serum pathology markers may determine candidate patients doubtless to possess advanced pathology. we have a tendency to registered 352 patients with NAFLD and performed liver biopsies in ninety seven patients. the world below the receiver in operation graphical record (AUROC) of liver stiffness by resonance elastography for histologic advanced pathology was zero.910, and therefore the best cutoff price was four.07 kPa. To predict severe liver stiffness (≥4.07 kPa), the AUROC for Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive mac-2 binding supermolecule (WFA+-M2BP) and FIB-4 were zero.897 (cutoff price, 1.08) and 0.880 (cutoff price, 2.53), severally. when stratification of patients into four age teams as mark, the best cutoff values of WFA+-M2BP for predicting severe liver stiffness were similar in every cluster (1.09, 1.08, 1.10, and 1.12). On the opposite hand, those of FIB-4 magnified in parallel with age (1.47, 2.19, 2.99, and 3.88). finally, WFA+-M2BP was precise for estimating severe liver stiffness in NAFLD with single cutoff price freelance getting on. Hence, distinguishing speculative cases mistreatment WFA+-M2BP from an oversized variety of NAFLD patients is clinically important. 
Seroprevalence of Salmonella Agglutinins among Apparently Healthy Students of a Tertiary Institution in North-Eastern Nigeria
Aim: to work out the extent of enterobacteria antibody and its concentration among apparently healthy students of Tertiary establishment in North-eastern African country.
Study Design: A cross-sectional study on Seroprevalence of enterobacteria agglutinin;
Place and period of the Study: Department of bioscience Technology, Federal polytechnic institute Mubi, Adamawa State, between September to December, 2016.
Methodology: This study was a cross-sectional study during which two hundred apparently healthy students of Federal polytechnic institute Mubi were tested for enterobacteria antibody victimization each slide and tube agglutination ways.
Statistical Analysis: Non-parametric Mann-Whitney statistics and least significance distinction (LSD) were accustomed take a look at for important difference all told the information obtained. Significance distinction was taken once P˂0.05.
Results: The result showed that the quantity of male with positive Widal antibody was considerably over that of feminine (P=0.028). the quantity of positive concentration was considerably higher in cohort 21-25 years (P=0.002) when put next to alternative age brackets. However, there was no applied mathematics distinction between the cohort 16-20 years and 31-35 years (P=0.747). The results of the agglutination concentration showed that additional male had enterobacteria titre for Salmonella typhosa O (81.8%) and Salmonella typhosa H (72.7%) whereas additional feminine had enterobacteria antibody concentration for Salmonella typhosa H (44.4%) and enterobacteria Paratyphi B-H (33.3%). it absolutely was additionally discovered that solely antibody for enterobacteria Paratyphi A-O, B-O, C-O, B-H and C-H were gift within the sera of male subjects up to the concentration of a hundred and sixty and at frequencies starting from one.6-58.8%. what is more, among females, it absolutely was discovered that solely agglutinins for enterobacteria Paratyphi A-O, Salmonella typhosa C-H and Salmonella typhosa O and H were gift within the sera of the topics up to the concentration of a hundred and sixty and at frequencies starting from two.5-25.0%.
Conclusion: police work enterobacteria antibody concentration up to a hundred and sixty among apparently healthy people is of public health significance. Thus, there’s have to be compelled to monitor this trend and make awareness on environmental and activity risk factors for enterobacteria infections. 
 Allen, A.K., Neuberger, A. and Sharon, N., 1973. The purification, composition and specificity of wheat-germ agglutinin. Biochemical Journal, 131(1), pp.155-162. (Web Link)
 Nagata, Y. and Burger, M.M., 1974. Wheat germ agglutinin molecular characteristics and specificity for sugar binding. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 249(10), pp.3116-3122. (Web Link)
 Nicolson, G.L. and Blaustein, J., 1972. The interaction of Ricinus communis agglutinin with normal and tumor cell surfaces. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Biomembranes, 266(2), pp.543-547. (Web Link)
 Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive mac-2 binding protein as an age-independent fibrosis marker in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Nobuharu Tamaki, Mayu Higuchi, Masayuki Kurosaki, Sakura Kirino, Leona Osawa, Keiya Watakabe, Wan Wang, Mao Okada, Takao Shimizu, Kenta Takaura, Hitomi Takada, Shun Kaneko, Yutaka Yasui, Kaoru Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki Nakanishi, Jun Itakura, Yuka Takahashi, Nobuyuki Enomoto & Namiki Izumi
Scientific Reportsvolume 9, Article number: 10109 (2019) (Web Link)
 Y. Tula, M., Iyoha, O., O. Okojie, R., Filgona, J. and A. Onyeje, G. (2018) “Seroprevalence of Salmonella Agglutinins among Apparently Healthy Students of a Tertiary Institution in North-Eastern Nigeria”, International Blood Research & Reviews, 8(3), pp. 1-7. doi: 10.9734/IBRR/2018/43362. (Web Link)