Research No: – 1
INVESTIGATION OF THE SPRAY AND FLAME STRUCTURE CHARACTERISTICS OF JATROPHA BIODIESEL USING SIMPLEX AIRBLAST ATOMIZER
In the current scenario, the global warming and the climate change due to the emission liberated by conventional fossil fuel would show the adverse impact on the globe. The efforts for a better solution to reduce carbon dioxide CO2 pollution emitted by transportation and other power producing units like thermal power plant, gas turbine units. Biodiesel, a renewable fuel is one of the promising substitutes for the above cause. Most of the countries are using bio-diesel up to 20% in compression ignition engines to reduce pollution and oil import bills. For good combustion in the oil furnace and gas turbine combustor, good mixture preparation, optimum spray, optimum flame length, cone angle and stable flame structure are the very essential requirements. Longer spray length causes wall wetting problem and smaller cone angle decrease fuel atomization. The flame instability causes fire to extinguish problem.
In the present paper, the author’s investigate spray characteristic of a renewable fuel jatropha biodiesel and its diesel blends for continuous combustion applications (like a gas turbine) using simplex airblast atomizer. Simplex air blast atomizer is the very good spray characteristics as compared to pressure type atomizer. Spray characteristics and flame structure such as Sauter mean diameter, spray penetration length, spray cone angle, flame lift, flame width, flame height and inflame temperature are carried out at different operating conditions. The fuel injection pressure varied at the step of 2 from 2 to 8 bars at constant fuel quantity 40 ml/min with atomizing air pressure of 7 bars. The AFR (atomizing air to liquid mass ratio) is maintained at 2 for good mixing. The results show that biodiesel provides slightly higher SMD with comparable atomization characteristics and short flame length with the base fuel diesel. Results also revealed that volumetric addition of biodiesel deceased spray cone angle and higher penetration length. Spray characteristics are found to improve by preheating fuel prior to the injection and also by increasing injection pressure. The results reveal that the increasing biodiesel proportion in diesel decreased flame height and increased in the flame lift causes the unstable flame.
Research No: – 2
CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN ETHIOPIA – CHALLENGES, INITIATIVES UNDERTAKEN AND STRATEGIC INTERVENTIONS REQUIRED
Climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. It may be a change in average weather conditions or in the distribution of weather around the average conditions (i.e., more or fewer extreme weather events). Climate change is caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions. Certain human activities have also been identified as significant causes of recent climate change, often referred to as “global warming”. People of Ethiopia are confronted with several problems associated with climate change and sustainable development which has brought in the huge challenge for the government. This is reflected in extreme weather conditions: increasingly unpredictable rains, and sometimes the complete failure of seasonal rains (problems which are linked to climate change). This has resulted in a situation where millions of Ethiopians often face severe food shortages.
This concept note aims to give an insight into the climate change challenges Ethiopia is faced with and the strategies it has devised for adaptation in view of impacts of climate change and resulting extreme events (like recurrent drought). In terms of the methodology employed, secondary data (collected from various sources: books, journals, etc.) have been used and they have been analyzed with the help of descriptive research method. Both qualitative and quantitative data have been used in the paper to support the statements made (in view of the laid down objective). The paper concludes that despite the fact that Ethiopia, like several other countries, is facing climate change challenges in the 21st Century, it is expected that the country will capitalize on its current economic growth by becoming more resilient to the impacts of climate change while developing its economy in a carbon neutral way.
Research No: – 3
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH TO ASSESS CROSS-LAMINATED TIMBER BOARD AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO STEEL AND CONCRETE, FOR WOODEN FLOORS
This study presents an analysis and benchmarking of two construction systems used in a rehabilitation scenario, in order to assist the decision-making process during the design phase. Both systems meet the same functional performance, mainly structural: reinforcement with a layer of compressed concrete, and the alternative equivalent system, made of plywood with the wooden board.
The methodology of life-cycle assessment (LCA) is proposed to compare the environmental burdens associated with two different solutions for a reinforcement system. This approach allows verifying which construction system behaves best towards the environment to take a decision facing the design of the rehabilitation.
The indicators of the considered systems are similar in some cases, but regarding global warming, the use of cross-laminated timber (CLT) for the reinforcement is a better alternative than the concrete reinforcement, while this one stands over for acidification of soil and water.
The current regulatory European framework is helping designers to reduce the environmental impact of buildings during their use; therefore it is important to consider the other phases of the building life cycle, including the product stage and the construction phase.
Research No: – 4
THE MANY POSSIBLE CLIMATES FROM THE PARIS AGREEMENT’S AIM OF 1.5 °C WARMING
The United Nations’ Paris Agreement includes the aim of pursuing efforts to limit global warming to only 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. However, it is not clear what the resulting climate would look like across the globe and over time. Here we show that trajectories towards a ‘1.5 °C warmer world’ may result in vastly different outcomes at regional scales, owing to variations in the pace and location of climate change and their interactions with society’s mitigation, adaptation and vulnerabilities to climate change. Pursuing policies that are considered to be consistent with the 1.5 °C aim will not completely remove the risk of global temperatures being much higher or of some regional extremes reaching dangerous levels for ecosystems and societies over the coming decades.