Latest Research on Pathogenic Bacteria: Jan – 2020

Guide to plant pathogenic bacteria.

In the first section of this comprehensive reference full information on nomenclature, synonymy, characteristics, type cultures, host ranges, symptoms and geographical distribution is presented for > 2000 bacterial names (45 gen.), arranged alphabetically. within the second section a host-pathogen index including c. 2500 host plants is provided. A bibliography of frequently cited references is appended. [1]

Iron Metabolism in Pathogenic Bacteria

The ability of pathogens to get iron from transferrins, ferritin, hemoglobin, and other iron-containing proteins of their host is central as to if they live or die. To combat invading bacteria, animals enter an iron-withholding mode and also use a protein (Nramp1) to get reactive oxygen species in an effort to kill the pathogens. Some invading bacteria respond by producing specific iron chelators—siderophores—that remove the iron from the host sources. Other bacteria believe direct contact with host iron proteins, either abstracting the iron at their surface or, like heme, taking it up into the cytoplasm. The expression of an outsized number of genes (>40 in some cases) is directly controlled by the prevailing intracellular concentration of Fe(II) via its complexing to a regulatory protein (the Fur protein or equivalent). during this way, the biochemistry of the bacterial cell can accommodate the challenges from the host. Agents that interfere with bacterial iron metabolism may prove extremely valuable for chemotherapy of diseases. [2]

Biosensors for detection of pathogenic bacteria

This paper presents an summary of various physicochemical instrumental techniques for direct and indirect identification of bacteria such as: infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy, flow cytometry, chromatography and chemiluminescence techniques as a basis for biosensor construction. A discussion of publications handling emerging biosensors for bacterial detection is presented. The review presents recent advances within the development of other enzyme- and immunosensors for detection of pathogenic bacteria during a sort of fields (e.g. clinical diagnostics, food analysis and environmental monitoring). counting on the biological element employed: enzyme; macromolecule and antibody based biosensors are discussed. [3]

Dissemination prevention of antibiotic resistant and facultative pathogenic bacteria by ultrafiltration and ozone treatment at an urban wastewater treatment plant

Conventional wastewater treatment isn’t sufficient for the removal of hygienically relevant bacteria and achieves only limited reductions. This study focuses on the reduction efficiencies of two semi-industrial ultrafiltration units operating at an outsized scale municipal wastewater treatment plant. In total, 7 clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes, along side 3 taxonomic gene markers targeting specific facultative pathogenic bacteria were analysed via qPCR analyses before and after advanced treatment. In parallel with membrane technologies, an ozone treatment (1 g ozone/g DOC) was performed for comparison of the various reduction efficiencies. Both ultrafiltration units showed increased reduction efficiencies for facultative pathogenic bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes of up to six log units, resulting mostly during a strong reduction of the bacterial targets. [4]

Antimicrobial Activity of Pleurotus squarrosulus on Clinical Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi

Aim: to guage the antimicrobial activities of Pleurotus squarrosulus mushroom extracts on bacterial and fungal isolates.

Study Design: Pleurotus squarrosulus was obtained from different sources in Umuahia North government, Abia state, Nigeria and identified within the Department of botany, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Place and Duration of Study: Antimicrobial activities of Pleurotus squarrosulus was administered within the department of microbiology between January 2016 and August 2016

Methodology: Pleurotus squarrosulus was extracted using ethanol, methanol and aqueous. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were administered by agar disc diffusion technique using National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standard. Qualilative phytochemical analysis was administered using standard methods. [5]

Reference

[1] Bradbury, J.F., 1986. Guide to plant pathogenic bacteria. CAB international. (Web Link)

[2] Ratledge, C. and Dover, L.G., 2000. Iron metabolism in pathogenic bacteria. Annual reviews in microbiology, 54(1), (Web Link)

[3] Ivnitski, D., Abdel-Hamid, I., Atanasov, P. and Wilkins, E., 1999. Biosensors for detection of pathogenic bacteria. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 14(7), (Web Link)

[4] Dissemination prevention of antibiotic resistant and facultative pathogenic bacteria by ultrafiltration and ozone treatment at an urban wastewater treatment plant
Norman Hembach, Johannes Alexander, Christian Hiller, Arne Wieland & Thomas Schwartz
Scientific Reports volume 9, (Web Link)

[5] U. Kalu, A. and C. Kenneth, O. (2017) “Antimicrobial Activity of Pleurotus squarrosulus on Clinical Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi”, Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 4(3), (Web Link)

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