Improved analysis of malondialdehyde in human body fluids
The widely used TBA assay for lipid peroxidation was modified to minimize artefactual oxidative degradation of lipids during the assay. Formation of the TBA-MDA condensation product was studied with and without exclusion of oxygen, and the concentration effect of BHT addition was examined. Oxygen was depleted from the reaction mixture by extensive argon gassing. Exclusion of oxygen resulted in decreased TBARS production in plasma but not in standard solutions. High BHT concentrations resulted in a similar effect. At concentrations higher than 3 mmol/l BHT exclusion of oxygen had no additional effect. By measuring n-butanol extracts in a multititer plate reader this modified method was made suitable as a preliminary screening assay of human body fluids for lipid peroxidation. 
Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a lipid peroxidation marker
Free radicals generate the lipid peroxidation process in an organism. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is one of the final products of polyunsaturated fatty acids peroxidation in the cells. An increase in free radicals causes overproduction of MDA. Malondialdehyde level is commonly known as a marker of oxidative stress and the antioxidant status in cancerous patients. 
Lipid peroxidation—DNA damage by malondialdehyde
Malondialdehyde is a naturally occurring product of lipid peroxidation and prostaglandin biosynthesis that is mutagenic and carcinogenic. It reacts with DNA to form adducts to deoxyguanosine and deoxyadenosine. The major adduct to DNA is a pyrimidopurinone called M1G. Site-specific mutagenesis experiments indicate that M1G is mutagenic in bacteria and is repaired by the nucleotide excision repair pathway. M1G has been detected in liver, white blood cells, pancreas, and breast from healthy human beings at levels ranging from 1–120 per 108 nucleotides. Several different assays for M1G have been described that are based on mass spectrometry, -postlabeling, or immunochemical techniques. Each technique offers advantages and disadvantages based on a combination of sensitivity and specificity. Application of each of these techniques to the analysis of M1G is reviewed and future needs for improvements are identified. M1G appears to be a major endogenous DNA adduct in human beings that may contribute significantly to cancer linked to lifestyle and dietary factors. High throughput methods for its detection and quantitation will be extremely useful for screening large populations. 
Protective Effect of Resveratrol Co-Administration with Cholesterol Diet on Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Malondialdehyde Concentration in Rabbits
The aim of the experiments was to investigate the protective effect of resveratrol co-administration with cholesterol diet on erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in rabbits. Thirty rabbits divided into six group of five animals (n = 5) each were used for the experiment: Group 1 = normal control (C), group 2 = cholesterol diet (CD) only, group 3 = resveratrol 200 mg/kg (R200), group 4 = resveratrol 400 mg/kg (R400), group 5 = CD + R200 and group 6 = CD + R400. Eight weeks after the treatment period, blood sample of about 5 ml (3 ml in EDTA bottle for erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) test and 2 ml in plane tube for extraction of serum for malondialdehyde concentration (MDA) were drawn from the heart of each sacrificed animal from all group by cardiac puncture. At 0.45% of NaCl concentration, the percentage haemolysis of 100% obtained in the CD group was considerably higher than the value of 59% recorded in the CD + R400 mg/kg and 30% haemolysis recorded for normal control group. Increases in haemolysis were indicated on the point in the graph presented. The MDA concentration obtained in the CD group rabbits (2.64±0.18 nmol/ml) was higher compared to those of CD + R200 and CD + R400 with a value of 1.70±0.14 nmol/ml and 1.64±0.12 nmol/ml respectively. It is concluded that CD increased haemolysis and MDA concentration in rabbits, ameliorated by resveratrol administration. 
Evaluation of Insulin, Malondialdehyde and Blood Pressure in Male Obese Individuals in Nnewi and Subsequent Effect of Green Tea Supplementation
Background: Obesity is a major public health issue worldwide, contributing to increased cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, insulin resistance and oxidative stress. This is due to sedentary lifestyles; poor dieting and low consumption of antioxidant supplement (example green tea). The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of fasting blood sugar, insulin, insulin resistance blood pressure and MDA in obese subjects and subsequent effect of green tea at 6weeks and 12weeks supplementation.
Methods: This was a cross sectional and interventional study. In the cross sectional study, 88 obese subjects (46 class I and 42 class II obese) and 50 normal weight subjects (control) were recruited. In the interventional study, 20 male obese subjects were randomly selected and were given 200ml of commercially prepared green tea. Fasting blood samples were collected before the intervention (baseline), at 6weeks and 12weeks of intervention and were later analyzed by standard method Enzyme Linked immunoassay and colorimeteric method. It was analysed statistically using SPSS version 23.0.
Results: There were significant increases in the mean levels of HOMA-IR, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose and insulin in obese subjects (class II and class I obese) when compared with control group (P<0.05), likewise in Class II obese when compared with Class I obese (P<0.05) while in the case of MDA, there was a significant increase only in Class II obese subjects when compared with the normal weight subjects (P<0.05). Green tea supplementation significantly reduced the mean level of MDA, fasting plasma glucose, weight, HOMA-IR and blood pressure at 12weeks of intervention while only Insulin and waist circumference were significantly reduced at 6weeks and 12weeks of intervention.
Conclusion: In conclusion, obesity is the major cause of diabetes, high blood pressure and insulin resistance. Green tea could be beneficial to diabetic patients and obese hypertensives. Green tea compounds- phytochemicals could be beneficial as one of the components of their diet. 
 Jentzsch, A.M., Bachmann, H., Fürst, P. and Biesalski, H.K., 1996. Improved analysis of malondialdehyde in human body fluids. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 20(2), pp.251-256.
 Gaweł, S., Wardas, M., Niedworok, E. and Wardas, P., 2004. Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a lipid peroxidation marker. Wiadomosci lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland: 1960), 57(9-10), p.453.
 Marnett, L.J., 1999. Lipid peroxidation—DNA damage by malondialdehyde. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 424(1-2), pp.83-95.
 Jimoh, A., Tanko, Y., Ahmed, A., Mohammed, A. and Ayo, J. O. (2015) “Protective Effect of Resveratrol Co-Administration with Cholesterol Diet on Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Malondialdehyde Concentration in Rabbits”, Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 6(1), pp. 14-21. doi: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/15856.
 Samuel Chukwuemeka, M., Ifeoma Joy, O., Chudi Emmanuel, D., Chikaodili Nwando, O.-E. and Saheed Opeyemi, U. (2018) “Evaluation of Insulin, Malondialdehyde and Blood Pressure in Male Obese Individuals in Nnewi and Subsequent Effect of Green Tea Supplementation”, Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(3), pp. 1-7. doi: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/41153.