Latest Research on Machine Engineering : Nov 2020

Engineering support vector machine kernels that recognize translation initiation sites

Motivation: In order to extract protein sequences from nucleotide sequences, it is an important step to recognize points at which regions start that code for proteins. These points are called translation initiation sites (TIS).

Results: The task of finding TIS can be modeled as a classification problem. We demonstrate the applicability of support vector machines for this task, and show how to incorporate prior biological knowledge by engineering an appropriate kernel function. With the described techniques the recognition performance can be improved by 26% over leading existing approaches. We provide evidence that existing related methods (e.g. ESTScan) could profit from advanced TIS recognition. [1]

Machine Learning and Software Engineering

Machine learning deals with the issue of how to build programs that improve their performance at some task through experience. Machine learning algorithms have proven to be of great practical value in a variety of application domains. They are particularly useful for (a) poorly understood problem domains where little knowledge exists for the humans to develop effective algorithms; (b) domains where there are large databases containing valuable implicit regularities to be discovered; or (c) domains where programs must adapt to changing conditions. Not surprisingly, the field of software engineering turns out to be a fertile ground where many software development and maintenance tasks could be formulated as learning problems and approached in terms of learning algorithms. This paper deals with the subject of applying machine learning in software engineering. In the paper, we first provide the characteristics and applicability of some frequently utilized machine learning algorithms. We then summarize and analyze the existing work and discuss some general issues in this niche area. Finally we offer some guidelines on applying machine learning methods to software engineering tasks and use some software development and maintenance tasks as examples to show how they can be formulated as learning problems and approached in terms of learning algorithms. [2]


The culture of engineering: Woman, workplace and machine

Questions arising from research on automation and women’s work have led me to explore patriarchal elements in the culture of engineering/management. In an elite technological institute, the engineering faculty, compared with the humanities faculty, reported more distance in childhood from experiences and qualities generally gender-linked with females—intimacy, sensuality, one’s own body, social complexity. Engineers valued social hierarchy on a continuum giving most prestige to scientific abstraction, least to feminine qualities. Such values were transmitted in the engineering classroom, for example, through professors’ jokes, to a new generation of engineering/ management. A persistent mind/body dualism was exhibited, subordinating sexuality and the body, and elevating scientific abstraction. The dualism translated into a mechanical view of the person and to continued separation of functions of mind and hand. Further examination of mind/body dualisms may help us to understand how the persistence of this body of ideas in Western technology affects labor processes, and in particular, women, workplace and machine. [3]

Development of Double Mould Vibration– Compactor Block Moulding Machine for Developing Countries

This work looked at the design and manufacturing of a low cost and easy to maintain vibration-compaction block moulding machine that can accommodate two different sizes of mould 9 inch (0.46×0.23×0.22m)  and 6 inch blocks(0.46×0.15×0.22m). It is borne out of the desire to solve housing problem in developing countries through reduction in the cost of the building materials like the block. It was designed to compact sandcrete block with strength of 0.99N/mm2 which is the same as those made from the universal block making machines but performed better when water absorption was less than 7%. It can produce about 400 blocks in an 8hours working day. It therefore occupies about 1/3rd the space taken and cost of N50,000 which is ¼ of the price of Universal Block Maker. The Vibrator Compactor Block Moulding Machine (VCBMM) was also used to produce sandcrete blocks which had a strength of 0.95N/mm when tested. The water absorption tests carried out on the sandcrete blocks absorbed 6.5 times more water. Therefore, the use of the sandcrete blocks from the VCBMM is recommended for use in all regions. The VCBMM was designed to be highly versatile and to be power driven by diesel motors. Provision was made on the sandcrete mould for sliding plates to be introduced into the mould holes so that 6 inch blocks and 9inch blocks are produced interchangeably. [4]


Development of a Manually Operated Multi-purpose Roasting Machine

Aim: The aim of this research is to design and fabricate multi-purpose roasting machine.

Study Design: Development of a manually operated multi-purpose roasting machine was achieved with the aid of conceptual sketch, design analysis and creo parametric software.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between July 2014 and October 2016.

Methodology: Design of the developed multi-purpose roasting machine was done using creo parametric software. Some factors were considered before fabrication of the developed machine such as selection of materials, operating parameters, manufacturing processes and functional requirements.

Results: The multi-purpose roasting machine was developed and tested on food items (maize and plantain).

Conclusion: The multi-purpose roasting machine was developed based on the design. The machine developed is a simple technology which can be easily operated by a single person of an average height of 1.4 m. The developed machine is a capable of roasting food items (maize, yams and plantain) depending on the choice of the operator and season of harvest. The bill of engineering measurements and evaluation (BEME) of the developed machine is 231.26 dollars. [5]

Reference

[1] Zien, A., Rätsch, G., Mika, S., Schölkopf, B., Lengauer, T. and Müller, K.R., 2000. Engineering support vector machine kernels that recognize translation initiation sites. Bioinformatics, 16(9), pp.799-807.

[2] Zhang, D. and Tsai, J.J., 2003. Machine learning and software engineering. Software Quality Journal, 11(2), pp.87-119.

[3] Hacker, S.L., 1981. The culture of engineering: Woman, workplace and machine. Women’s Studies International Quarterly, 4(3), pp.341-353.

[4] T. Adejugbe, I., K. Ukoba, O., S. Idowu, A., T. Oyelami, A. and O. O. Olusunle, S. (2014) “Development of Double Mould Vibration– Compactor Block Moulding Machine for Developing Countries”, Physical Science International Journal, 4(10), pp. 1358-1369. doi: 10.9734/PSIJ/2014/5813.

[5] Awopetu, O. and Aderibigbe, A. (2017) “Development of a Manually Operated Multi-purpose Roasting Machine”, Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 20(1), pp. 1-7. doi: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/31679.

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