Gender equality in education: Definitions and measurements
International consensus on education priorities accords an important place to achieving gender justice in the educational sphere. Both the Dakar ‘Education for All’ goals and the Millennium Development goals emphasise two goals, in this regard. These two goals are distinguished as gender parity goals [achieving equal participation of girls and boys in all forms of education based on their proportion in the relevant age-groups in the population] and gender equality goals [ensuring educational equality between boys and girls]. In turn these have been characterised as quantitative/numerical and qualitative goals respectively. In order to consider progress towards both types of goal, both quantitative and qualitative assessments need to be made of the nature of progress towards gender equality. Achieving gender parity is just one step towards gender equality in and through education. An education system with equal numbers of boys and girls participating, who may progress evenly through the system, may not in fact be based on gender equality. Following Wilson (Human Rights: Promoting gender equality in and through education. Background paper for EFA GMR 2003/4, 2003) a consideration of gender equality in education therefore needs to be understood as the right to education [access and participation], as well as rights within education [gender-aware educational environments, processes, and outcomes], and rights through education [meaningful education outcomes that link education equality with wider processes of gender justice].
 Gender Equality and Fertility: Which Equality Matters?
Does gender equality matter for fertility? Demographic findings on this issue are rather inconclusive. We argue that one reason for this is that the complexity of the concept of gender equality has received insufficient attention. Gender equality needs to be conceptualized in a manner that goes beyond perceiving it as mere “sameness of distribution”. It needs to include notions of gender equity and thus to allow for distinguishing between gender difference and gender inequality. We sketch three dimensions of gender equality related to employment, financial resources, and family work, which incorporate this understanding: (1) the ability to maintain a household; (2) agency and the capability to choose; and (3) gender equity in household and care work. We explore their impact on childbearing intentions of women and men using the European Generations and Gender Surveys. Our results confirm the need for a more nuanced notion of gender equality in studies on the relationship between gender equality on fertility.
 The European Union and Gender Equality: Emergent Varieties of Gender Regime
The implications of the development of the European Union for gender equality are analyzed through an assessment of the development of a path-dependent form of the gender regime in the EU. Two issues underpin this analysis, one concerning the theorization of gender relations, the second concerning the nature of EU powers. The analysis of gender inequality requires more than a simple scale of inequalities and additionally requires the theorization of the extent and nature of the interconnections between different dimensions of the gender regime. The powers of the EU are extending beyond the narrowly economic in complex ways.
 Family Policies and Policies for Gender Equality in the Nordic Societies: An Analysis Using the Family Models
This paper is a literature review studying how family policies and policies for gender equality in the Nordic countries move towards a specific family model. The focus of this paper is how family models have helped in improving gender equality in Nordic societies, and how this has led to the move away from the male breadwinner model to the dual earner family model. Family policies from Norway, Sweden and Denmark were investigated. This study relied on secondary sources of data as a point of departure in the comparative analysis of family models. Journal articles, books, media reports and statistical reports were reviewed in analysing data for the study. Within the Nordic countries, family policies constitute an important component of the welfare state policies. These countries are known for their extensive support for families with children through policies aiming to reconcile work and family life, to share paid and unpaid work more equally between men and women, and to provide solutions that reflect the interest of the child. Findings show that deliberate government policies towards families have led to promoting gender equality and a move towards a dual earner family model.
 Retention and Gender Equity: Female Experiences on Graduate Evening Programmes
In Uganda, the effort to make education available and accessible to all and to enable citizens achieve the highest level of learning led to the introduction of evening programmes at higher level to target those who cannot fit in normal day-hours programmes. Despite considerable research dedicated to female enrolment at higher education, attention has not been given to challenges faced by female graduate students in accessing evening programmes. Researchers examine the physical, organisational, managerial, and policy frameworks within which female students access graduate evening programmes. In understanding some female graduate students’ experiences on evening programmes, researchers discover multifaceted challenges they encounter such as lack of enough facilities to accommodate female graduate students, poor security, sexual harassment, poor economic background of most female students including single mothers, lack of guidance and counselling services, and household responsibilities for the married females. Researchers conclude that the causes are personal, social, economic, institutional and administrative. Researchers, therefore, recommend that the University should set up or lobby the private sector to provide affordable female accommodation near campus, strengthen security measures in and around campus, revitalise guidance and counselling services, and ensure equal opportunity policy.
 Subrahmanian, R., 2005. Gender equality in education: Definitions and measurements. International Journal of Educational Development, 25(4), pp.395-407.
 Neyer, G., Lappegård, T. and Vignoli, D., 2013. Gender equality and fertility: Which equality matters?. European Journal of Population/Revue européenne de Démographie, 29(3), pp.245-272.
 Walby, S., 2004. The European Union and gender equality: Emergent varieties of gender regime. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society, 11(1), pp.4-29.
 Nti-Gyeabour, J., 2018. Family Policies and Policies for Gender Equality in the Nordic Societies: An Analysis Using the Family Models. Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, pp.1-9.
 Kimoga, J., Mugisa, P., Bbaale, B. and Okurut, M., 2015. Retention and Gender Equity: Female Experiences on Graduate Evening Programmes. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, pp.1-13.