Pasting properties of different wheat flour-hydrocolloid systems
The effect of several hydrocolloids on the pasting properties and gelling behaviour of wheat flour was investigated. The influence of the selected hydrocolloids (guar gum, pectin, alginate, κ-carrageenan, xanthan and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)) on wheat flour was tested by using two different techniques: amylograph and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In order to have a general overview of their effect, hydrocolloids were chosen from different sources implying a broad diversity of chemical structures. Differences among hydrocolloid-wheat flour suspensions were more evident from amylographic analysis than from DSC examination. The hydrocolloid addition largely modified the amylograph parameters of wheat flour—even at the low levels tested [0.5 and 1% (w/w), flour basis], and the extent of their effect depended upon the chemical structure of the added hydrocolloid. The greatest effect on pasting temperature was observed when 1% alginate was added, which produced a decrease of ca 3°C.
 Wheat flour constituents: how they impact bread quality, and how to impact their functionality
The vast majority of bread is traditionally produced from wheat flour. Apart from its major constituent starch, wheat flour also contains many other types of substances of which the gluten, the non-starch polysaccharides as well as the lipids are the most important in terms of their impact on the processability of the raw material and in terms of the quality of the final products. We here provide the basics on the processability and quality determining wheat flour constituents and present common concepts on their fate during the breadmaking process as well as on approaches targeted to influence their functionality.
 The formation and properties of wheat flour doughs
Among the cereal flours, only wheat flour will form a viscoelastic dough when mixed with water. The viscoelasticity appears to be because the gluten proteins are water compatible and thus will swell and interact. The gluten protein’s large molecular size and low charge density appear to allow them to interact by both hydrogen and hydrophobic bonds. Wheat flour doughs are also unique in their ability to retain gas. This property appears to result from a slow rate of gas diffusion in the dough. The third major unique property of wheat flour doughs is their ability to set in the oven during baking, and thereby to produce a rigid loaf of bread. Although not clearly understood, this appears to be a heat‐induced crosslinking of the gluten proteins.
 Effect of Orange Peel Flour on the Quality Characteristics of Bread
Aims: This study was carried out to investigate the effects of orange peel flour (OPF) substitution with wheat flour in bread production (substitution levels of 3, 6 and 9%) on the proximate composition, phytochemicals content, baking and sensory characteristics.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria for seven months.
Methodology: Oranges were washed thoroughly and peeled. Peels were boiled in water, sundried and ground into flour. Bread was produced by replacing wheat flour with 3, 6 and 9% OPF. Bread samples were analyzed for proximate composition (fat, moisture, protein, ash, fibre and carbohydrates), phytochemicals (tannins, saponins and alkaloids), baking characteristics (oven spring, loaf volume, specific volume and weight) and sensory quality.
Results: The addition of orange peel flour led to reduction in protein (8.2-2.7%) and fat (1.7-0.8%) but increased the ash (2.3-4.3%), fibre (0.6-5.8%) and carbohydrates (59.9-62.1%) contents. Phytochemicals levels also increased with increased levels of orange peel flour in the samples. Tannins ranged from 3.6-8.0mg/g, saponins from 0.9-1.4mg/g and alkaloids from 3.6-4.8mg/g. Oven spring decreased from 2.0 to 0.2cm, loaf volume from 8.0 to 4.8cm3 and specific volume from 5.3 to 3.2cm3/g. Sensory quality decreased with increase in orange peel flour for all the attributes studied. However sensory quality of bread made with 3% OPF did not differ from that made with 100% wheat flour.
Conclusion: The use of orange peel flour in bread has the advantage of improving the fibre, ash and phytochemicals levels in bread. However only bread produced with 3% OPF had sensory quality comparable to that produced with 100% wheat. Orange peel flour in bread production will not only add value to food but will also reduce environmental pollution as well as reduce the cost of importation of wheat.
 Storage Stability of Pupuru Flour (A Cassava Product) at Room Temperature
Aims: The knowledge of water sorption Isotherm gives information about water activity of foods; to investigate chemical reactions during drying and storage. This study therefore, was to determine the sorption properties of pupuru flour during storage at ambient temperature.
Study Design: Research study.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Food Processing Laboratory of Food Science and Technology Department of Federal University of Technology, Akure, between April 2009 and December 2009.
Methodology: Adsorption characteristics of pupuru flour, a fermented cassava product, were determined at room temperature of 27°C using the static gravimetric procedure. Samples were equilibrated in desiccators containing tetraoxosulphate (VI) solution of known water activity (0.1-0.6). The data obtained were fitted to four moisture sorption models, namely Henderson, Chung Pfost, Oswin and Caurie for their predictive capabilities.
Results: The coefficients of determination varied from 0.881- 0.993. Both Henderson and Oswin models gave the most suitable models for describing the sorption data. The appropriate constants in the sorption equation were determined by regression analysis at temperature of 27°C. A comparison of the EMC curves showed that the toasted pupuru sample had lower equilibrium moisture contents than the smoked and oven dried samples at lower aw but higher EMC at higher aw.
Conclusion: It can also be concluded that the models are quite useful in assessing the storage stability of pupuru flour. The toasted pupuru flour has a higher sorption capacity and longer storage stability at higher aw of the tropics than the other two samples at atmospheric temperature of 29°C.
 Rojas, J.A., Rosell, C.M. and De Barber, C.B., 1999. Pasting properties of different wheat flour-hydrocolloid systems. Food hydrocolloids, 13(1), pp.27-33.
 Goesaert, H., Brijs, K., Veraverbeke, W.S., Courtin, C.M., Gebruers, K. and Delcour, J.A., 2005. Wheat flour constituents: how they impact bread quality, and how to impact their functionality. Trends in food science & technology, 16(1-3), pp.12-30.
 Hoseney, R.C. and Rogers, D.E., 1990. The formation and properties of wheat flour doughs. Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition, 29(2), pp.73-93.
 Okpala, L.C. and Akpu, M.N., 2014. Effect of orange peel flour on the quality characteristics of bread. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, pp.823-830.
 Famurewa, J.A.V., Oluwamukomi, M.O. and Alaba, J.O., 2012. Storage stability of pupuru flour (a cassava product) at room temperature. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, pp.138-145.