Latest Research on Diets Used: March-2020

Comparisons of diets used in animal models of high fat feeding

Animal models are invaluable resources for biomedical research, including research on the effects of diet on metabolism and disease. Usually, great care is taken to ensure comparable genetic backgrounds and environmental conditions when performing studies using animal models, since this minimizes introduction of variability that can confound detection of treatment-related phenotypic differences. However, many papers using animal models draw conclusions about dietary effects from comparison of natural ingredient chow with defined diets, despite marked differences in micro- and macronutrient content. When comparing the effects of a chow diet with a high-fat defined diet, the effects of the dietary fat will be confounded with the effects of other components in the diets. [1]

Redundancy of Variables Used to Describe Importance of Prey Species in Fish Diets

Information redundancy associated with three measurement variables were examined using food habit data from five species of demersal fish in the lower Bay of Fundy. Number, weight, and percent frequency of occurrence measures of three prey species all load heavily on the first principal component of a PCA and are therefore highly correlated. We conclude that it is probably not necessary to create compound indices of prey species importance when documenting soft-bottom benthic associations or demersal fish food habits. Compound indices add little new information when compared with any single measure. [2]

Calorie conversion factors. An experimental reassessment of the factors used in the calculation of the energy value of human diets

  1. The intake and excretion of total nitrogen, fat and the various forms of carbohydrate, and the heats of combustion of the diet, urine and faeces were measured in groups of young men, young women, elderly men and elderly women.
  2. Each group was studied while the subjects were eating two diets in turn, which differed in their contents of unavailable carbohydrate; the young women were also studied on a third diet which was rich in unavailable carbohydrate. [3]

Hypoglycaemic Effect and Proximate Composition of Some Selected Nigerian Traditional Diets Used in Management of Diabetes Mellitus

Selected traditional Nigerian diets: Garri with afang soup, pounded yam with edikang ikong soup and ekpang nkukwo alongside a reference diet, plantain with beans porridge, were investigated for their efficacy for use in management of diabetes mellitus. The proximate composition of the diets was analysed using standard methods and thereafter fed to alloxanized rats for 15 days, while monitoring the changes in weight and blood glucose. [4]

Criteria for Safe Use of Plant Ingredients in Diets for Aquacultured Fish

The Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet) asked the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet) to assess if the criteria for safe use of plant ingredients in diets for aquacultured fish fulfil the Feed regulative §7 to “not induce negative health effects in the animal”, and in this context aquacultured fish. [5]

 

Reference

[1]  Warden, C.H. and Fisler, J.S., 2008. Comparisons of diets used in animal models of high fat feeding. Cell metabolism7(4), p.277.

[2]  Macdonald, J.S. and Green, R.H., 1983. Redundancy of variables used to describe importance of prey species in fish diets. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences40(5), pp.635-637.

[3] Southgate, D.A.T. and Durnin, J.V.G.A., 1970. Calorie conversion factors. An experimental reassessment of the factors used in the calculation of the energy value of human diets. British Journal of Nutrition24(2), pp.517-535.

[4] Ani, I.F., Atangwho, I.J., Ejemot-Nwadiaro, R.I., Itam, E.H. and Essien, E.U., 2011. Hypoglycaemic effect and proximate composition of some selected Nigerian traditional diets used in management of diabetes mellitus. European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, pp.94-101.

[5] Hemre, G.-I., Amlund, H., Aursand, M., Bakke, A., Olsen, R., Ringø, E., Svihus, B., Svihus, B., Bernhoft, A., Jenssen, B. M., Møretrø, T., Nesse, L. and Torrissen, O. (2018) “Criteria for Safe Use of Plant Ingredients in Diets for Aquacultured Fish”, European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 8(4), pp. 240-242. doi: 10.9734/EJNFS/2018/43861.

 

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