Dietary Supplement Use in the United States, 2003–2006
Dietary supplement use has steadily increased over time since the 1970s; however, no current data exist for the U.S. population. Therefore, the aim of this analysis was to estimate dietary supplement use using the NHANES 2003–2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. Dietary supplement use was analyzed for the U.S. population (≥1 y of age) by the DRI age groupings. Supplement use was measured through a questionnaire and was reported by 49% of the U.S. population (44% of males, 53% of females). Multivitamin-multimineral use was the foremost frequently reported dietary supplement (33%). the bulk of individuals reported taking just one dietary supplement and did so on a day to day . Dietary supplement use was lowest in obese adults and highest among non-Hispanic whites, older adults, and people with quite a high-school education. 
Clinical Pharmacology of the Dietary Supplement Creatine Monohydrate
Creatine may be a dietary supplement alleged to improve exercise performance and increase fat-free mass. Recent research on creatine has demonstrated positive therapeutic leads to various clinical applications. the aim of this review is to specialise in the clinical pharmacology and therapeutic application of creatine supplementation. Creatine may be a present compound obtained in humans from endogenous production and consumption through the diet. When supplemented with exogenous creatine, intramuscular and cerebral stores of creatine and its phosphorylated form, phosphocreatine, become elevated. the rise of those stores offers therapeutic benefits by preventing ATP depletion, stimulating protein synthesis or reducing protein degradation, and stabilizing biological membranes. 
Dietary supplement creatine protects against traumatic brain injury
Creatine, one among the foremost common food supplements employed by individuals at almost every level of athleticism, promote gains in performance, strength, and fat‐free mass. Recent experimental findings have demonstrated that creatine affords significant neuroprotection against ischemic and oxidative insults. this experiments investigated the possible effect of creatine dietary supplementation on brain tissue damage after experimental traumatic brain injury. Results demonstrate that chronic administration of creatine ameliorated the extent of cortical damage by the maximum amount as 36% in mice and 50% in rats. Protection seems to be associated with creatine‐induced maintenance of mitochondrial bioenergetics. Mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly increased, intramitochondrial levels of reactive oxygen species and calcium were significantly decreased, and ATP levels were maintained. Induction of mitochondrial permeability transition was significantly inhibited in animals fed creatine. 
Validity and reproducibility of a self-administered questionnaire to determine dietary supplement users among Japanese
Objective: to guage reproducibility and validity of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to work out the dietary supplement use.
Design: Questionnaire data were compared with dietary records (DR) in four 7 day periods for validity. FFQ1 and FFQ2 administered at an interval of roughly one year were compared for reproducibility.
Setting and subjects: a complete of 361 samples were selected for a validation study of a questionnaire from the subgroup of the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective Study on cancer and disorder (JPHC Study) cohort II. Categories of dietary supplements within the FFQ were ‘multivitamins’, ‘β-carotene’, ‘vitamin C’, ‘vitamin E’, and ‘other supplements’. for every category, inquiries were made on the name , frequency and duration of use. A dietary supplement user was defined as a topic who used a dietary supplement one or more times every week for a year or longer. 
Effect of Herbal Dietary Supplement White Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) on Sprague-Dawley Rats Performance
Aim: The aim of this study was to look at the dietary effects of white ginseng (WG) supplementation on physical performance and expression of genes in colon and duodenum of rats.
Study Design: Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 8 weeks (young) and 44 weeks (aged) aged were allocated into three treatment groups (n = 5) and fed a typical rodent chow control diet or a diet containing 200 mg/kg b.w (low-dose) or 500 mg/kg b.w (high-dose) WG.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, CNU, Daejeon. The experiment lasted for 11 weeks within the year 2014. 
 Bailey, R.L., Gahche, J.J., Lentino, C.V., Dwyer, J.T., Engel, J.S., Thomas, P.R., Betz, J.M., Sempos, C.T. and Picciano, M.F., 2011. Dietary supplement use in the United States, 2003–2006. The Journal of nutrition, 141(2), (Web Link)
 Persky, A.M. and Brazeau, G.A., 2001. Clinical pharmacology of the dietary supplement creatine monohydrate. Pharmacological reviews, 53(2), (Web Link)
 Sullivan, P.G., Geiger, J.D., Mattson, M.P. and Scheff, S.W., 2000. Dietary supplement creatine protects against traumatic brain injury. Annals of neurology, 48(5), (Web Link)
 Validity and reproducibility of a self-administered questionnaire to determine dietary supplement users among Japanese
J Ishihara, T Sobue, S Yamamoto, S Sasaki, M Akabane & S Tsugane
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition volume 55, (Web Link)
 Kim, H.-J., Balkunde, S., Cho, J.-H., Mo, E.-K. and Sung, C.-K. (2017) “Effect of Herbal Dietary Supplement White Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) on Sprague-Dawley Rats Performance”, European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 18(3), (Web Link)