Latest Research News on Myopia: Dec – 2019

The myopia of learning

Organizational learning has several virtues, virtues that recent writings in strategic management have highlighted. Learning processes, however, square measure subject to some necessary limitations. As is well‐known, learning should address confusing expertise and also the sophisticated downside of leveling the competitory goals of developing new information (i.e., exploring) and exploiting current competencies within the face of dynamic tendencies to stress one or the opposite. we have a tendency to examine the ways that organizations approach these issues through simplification and specialization and the way those approaches contribute to 3 kinds of learning ametropia, the tendency to overlook distant times, foreign places, and failures, and that we establish some ways that within which organizations sustain exploration within the face of a bent to overinvest in exploitation. [1]

Takeover Threats and Managerial Myopia

This paper examines the acquainted argument that takeover pressure is damaging as a result of it leads managers to sacrifice long interests so as to spice up current profits. If stockholders square measure amiss privy, briefly low earnings could cause the stock to become undervalued, increasing the probability of a takeover at Associate in Nursing unfavorable price; thence the social control concern with current bottom line. The magnitude of the matter depends on a range of things, as well as the attitudes and beliefs of shareholders, the extent to that company raiders have details, and therefore the degree to that managers square measure involved with holding management of their companies. [2]

An Animal Model of Myopia

Myopia develops in catarrhine monkeys once their lids area unit surgically amalgamate at birth and unbroken closed for one year. This experimental refractive error has several options in common with human myopia: it’s caused by progressive axial elongation of the attention, is usually in the middle of anatomical structure changes, and might solely be evoked before eye growth has been completed. nearsightedness doesn’t develop in animals raised within the dark; so, it’s triggered by AN alteration of the visual input and is presumptively mediate by the system. In mammal genus arctoides, mydriatic drug administration prevents abnormal eye elongation, and this implies that lid-fusion nearsightedness is caused by excessive accommodation. In M. mulatta, mydriatic drug is ineffective; moreover, nearsightedness develops once lids area unit sutured once interruption of the optic pathways. [3]

Grandmothers’ smoking in pregnancy is associated with a reduced prevalence of early-onset myopia

Myopia (near sightedness) is that the most typical vision disorder leading to disability worldwide. we have a tendency to tested the hypothesis that intergenerational, non-genetic hereditary effects influence refractive development, victimisation grandparental antepartum smoking as a candidate exposure. victimisation information from the Avon Longitudinal Study of oldsters and kids (ALSPAC), we have a tendency to found that the prevalence of shortsightedness at age seven was lower if the paternal granny had smoke-dried in maternity, associate degree association primarily found among grandsons compared to granddaughters. There was a weaker, non-sex-specific, reduction within the prevalence of shortsightedness at age seven if the maternal granny had smoke-dried in maternity. [4]

The Pathogenesis of Index Myopia in Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes: A Review

Elevated glucose or symptom occasioned by DM (DM), compromises the index of refraction of the lens, thanks to the diffusion distinction between the lens materials and also the binary compound medium of the anterior chamber of the attention. underneath this circumstance there’s a movement of fluid to either direction counting on the concentration gradient in each media. once there’s movement out of the lens, into the binary compound, the ratio of the lens will increase, and this case conjointly causes a fulminant modification within the refractive power of the lens, resulting in index ametropia, whereas a decrease results in index longsightedness. However, the evoked ametropia from this fulminant fluctuation within the refractive power of the lens reverses shortly once a chronic treatment and management of the symptom, with a mix of symptom medication and diet medical aid by the MD. The issue of spectacle prescription throughout these fluctuations is suspended till reversal. [5]

Reference

[1] Levinthal, D.A. and March, J.G., 1993. The myopia of learning. Strategic management journal, 14(S2), (Web Link)

[2] Stein, J.C., 1988. Takeover threats and managerial myopia. Journal of political economy, 96(1), (Web Link)

[3] Raviola, E. and Wiesel, T.N., 1985. An animal model of myopia. New England Journal of Medicine, 312(25), (Web Link)

[4] Grandmothers’ smoking in pregnancy is associated with a reduced prevalence of early-onset myopia
Cathy Williams, Matthew Suderman, Jeremy A. Guggenheim, Genette Ellis, Steve Gregory, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Kate Northstone, Jean Golding & Marcus Pembrey
Scientific Reports volume 9, (Web Link)

[5] C. Umezurike, B., Udeala, O., G. Green, U., Okpechi-Agbo, U. and U. Ohaeri, M. (2018) “The Pathogenesis of Index Myopia in Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes: A Review”, Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, 9(2), (Web Link)

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