Latest Research News on Fusarium Species: Dec – 2019

Toxigenic Fusarium species. Identity and mycotoxicology.

This book represents an effort to clarify the taxonomy and nomenclature of toxinogenic Fusarium spp. The nomenclature used follows the system given in Nelson, P.E. et al. Fusarium species: an illustrated manual for identification. University Park, USA; Pennsylvania State University Press, 1983, 203 pp. Each toxinogenic sp. is discussed in reference to its incidence and distribution, association with human and/or animal diseases, toxicity to experimental animals, and mycotoxins produced. this is often followed by an inventory of toxinogenic isolates held within the International Toxic Fusarium Reference Collection (ITFRC), held at Pennsylvania State Univ. Information given for every isolate includes the right identification, references to publications during which the isolate is cited and therefore the toxic properties of and mycotoxins reported to be produced by the isolate. [1]

Production of fusaric acid by Fusarium species.

Fusaric acid may be a mycotoxin with low to moderate toxicity, which is of concern since it’d be synergistic with other cooccurring mycotoxins. Fusaric acid is widespread on corn and corn-based food and feeds and is usually found in grain, where Fusarium spp. also are isolated. We surveyed 78 strains of Fusarium moniliforme, F. crookwellense, F. subglutinans, F. sambucinum, F. napiforme, F. heterosporum, F. oxysporum, F. solani, and F. proliferatum for his or her ability to supply fusaric acid. Strains in Fusarium section Liseola also were assigned to mating population of the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. The fungi might be divided into three classes, low (< 100 micrograms/g), moderate (100 to 500 micrograms/g), and high (> 500 micrograms/g), supported the amounts of this mycotoxin produced in culture on autoclaved corn. [2]

Trichothecene Chemotypes of Three Fusarium Species

Identification of the mycotoxins produced by different species of Fusarium can serve to verify their classification or to relate the variation of toxigenic potential within a species. Strains of Fusarium graminearum (55), Fusarium crookwellense (16), and Fusarium culmorum (3) were grown in three liquid media and on rice. The toxins produced within the various media were assessed by analyzing the metabolites by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These data are wont to propose variety of chemotypes. The metabolic profiles of Fusarium graminearum were similar, having chemotype I (deoxynivalenol) in common. In Chinese strains, chemotype IA (deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl) predominated while the Mexican strains, like other North American strains, were chemotype IB (deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl). The Fusarium culmorum strains tested had a chemotype almost like that of chemotype IA of Fusarium graminearum. [3]

Transferability of PCR-based diagnostic protocols: An international collaborative case study assessing protocols targeting the quarantine pine pathogen Fusarium circinatum

Fusarium circinatum may be a harmful pathogenic fungus mostly attacking Pinus species and also green douglas fir, causing cankers in trees of all ages, damping-off in seedlings, and mortality in cuttings and mother plants for clonal production. This fungus is listed as a quarantine pest in several parts of the planet and therefore the trade of probably contaminated pine material like cuttings, seedlings or seeds is restricted so as to stop its spread to disease-free areas. Inspection of material often relies on DNA testing and a number of other conventional or real-time PCR based tests targeting F. circinatum are available within the literature. [4]

Prevalence of Fusarium Species Associated with Peach Decline in Tunisian Nurseries

Aims: To survey nurseries and diagnosis of the young peach seedlings decline, to research the Fusariumspecies related to the decline of peach in Tunisian nurseries  using morphological and molecular tools and determine the pathogenicity of the foremost predominant species on peach seedlings.

Place and Duration of Study: Tunisian peach nurseries and Department of Biological Sciences and Plant Protection, Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Mariem, 4042, Sousse, Tunisia, between November 2012 and July 2014.

Methodology: The surveys were conducted in peach nurseries. Five root samples were taken from each vigor of every peach variety. The isolation and therefore the morphological identification were done on PDA medium. The molecular identification was done using ITS1 and ITS4. Pathogenicity tests were made for the dominant species which are F. oxysporum (25 isolates) and F. solani (8 isolates). [5]

Reference

[1] Marasas, W.F.O., Nelson, P.E. and Toussoun, T.A., 1984. Toxigenic Fusarium species. Identity and mycotoxicology. Pennsylvania State University. (Web Link)

[2] Bacon, C.W., Porter, J.K., Norred, W.P. and Leslie, J., 1996. Production of fusaric acid by Fusarium species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 62(11), (Web Link)

[3] Miller, J.D., Greenhalgh, R., Wang, Y. and Lu, M., 1991. Trichothecene chemotypes of three Fusarium species. Mycologia, 83(2), (Web Link)

[4] Transferability of PCR-based diagnostic protocols: An international collaborative case study assessing protocols targeting the quarantine pine pathogen Fusarium circinatum
Renaud Ioos, Francesco Aloi, […]Jaime Aguayo
Scientific Reports volume 9, (Web Link)

[5] Mannai, S., Benfradj, N., Horrigue-Raouani, N. and Boughalleb-M’Hamdi, N. (2018) “Prevalence of Fusarium Species Associated with Peach Decline in Tunisian Nurseries”, Microbiology Research Journal International, 23(4), (Web Link)

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