Latest Research News on Enterovirus: Jan – 2020

Fatal enterovirus 71 encephalomyelitis

During an epidemic of hand-foot-mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71 (EV-71) in 1997, 4 children presented with sudden cardiopulmonary collapse and minimal neurologic features. All children received CPR but died within a couple of hours of admission. Postmortem studies showed infection by EV-71 with extensive damage to the medulla and pons. We postulate an etiologic link between EV-71 and brainstem encephalomyelitis because the explanation for pulmonary edema and death. [1]

An Epidemic of Enterovirus 71 Infection in Taiwan

BACKGROUND: Enteroviruses can cause outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (characterized by vesicular lesions on the hands, feet, and oral mucosa) or herpangina, usually without life-threatening manifestations. In 1998 a plague of enterovirus 71 infection caused hand-foot-and-mouth disease and herpangina in thousands of individuals in Taiwan, a number of whom died.

METHODS: We assessed the epidemiologic aspects of this outbreak. Cases of hand-foot-and-mouth disease or herpangina in ambulatory patients were reported to the Taiwan Department of Health by a mean of 818 sentinel physicians. Severe cases in hospitalized patients were reported by 40 medical centers and regional hospitals. Viruses were isolated by 10 hospital laboratories and therefore the department of health. [2]

Virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control of enterovirus 71

First isolated in California, USA, in 1969, enterovirus 71 (EV71) may be a major public health issue across the Asia-Pacific region and beyond. The virus, which is closely associated with polioviruses, mostly affects children and causes hand, foot, and mouth disease with neurological and systemic complications. Specific receptors for this virus are found on white blood cells, cells within the respiratory and alimentary canal , and dendritic cells. Being an RNA virus, EV71 lacks a proofreading mechanism and is evolving rapidly, with new outbreaks occurring across Asia in regular cycles, and virus gene subgroups seem to differ in clinical epidemiological properties. The pathogenesis of the severe cardiopulmonary manifestations and therefore the relative contributions of neurogenic pulmonary oedema, cardiac dysfunction, increased vascular permeability, and cytokine storm are controversial. [3]

Glutathione facilitates enterovirus assembly by binding at a druggable pocket

Enteroviruses cause a variety of human and animal diseases, some life-threatening, but there remain no licenced anti-enterovirus drugs. However, a benzene-sulfonamide derivative and related compounds are shown recently to dam infection of a variety of enteroviruses by binding the capsid at a positively-charged surface depression conserved across many enteroviruses. it’s also been established that glutathione is important for the assembly of the many enteroviruses, interacting with the capsid proteins to facilitate the formation of the pentameric assembly intermediate, although the mechanism is unknown. Here we show, by high resolution structure analyses of enterovirus F3, that reduced glutathione binds to an equivalent interprotomer pocket because the benzene-sulfonamide derivative. [4]

High Serotype Diversity of Non-polio Enteroviruses Isolated in Ghana during Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance, 2010-2014

Aim: Sabin-like polioviruses and non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) isolated from acute nervous disorder cases have continued to circulate within the country. However, no wild poliovirus has been detected in Ghana since the last case of poliomyelitis in 2008. This decline has been attributed to active surveillance and intensive oral polio vaccine immunization. As we approach polio-free world, surveillance of NPEVs implicated in acute nervous disorder (AFP) is beneficial for establishing temporal and geographical patterns of circulation and variety .

Study Design: This was a retrospective study using stool samples store at -20°C.

Place and Duration: The investigation was administered at the WHO-accredited Regional Reference Polio Laboratory, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Legon, Ghana from January 2010 to December 2014. [5]

Reference

[1] Lum, L.C., Wong, K.T., Lam, S.K., Chua, K.B., Goh, A.Y.T., Lim, W.L., Ong, B.B., Paul, G., AbuBakar, S. and Lambert, M., 1998. Fatal enterovirus 71 encephalomyelitis. The Journal of pediatrics, 133(6), (Web Link)

[2] Ho, M., Chen, E.R., Hsu, K.H., Twu, S.J., Chen, K.T., Tsai, S.F., Wang, J.R. and Shih, S.R., 1999. An epidemic of enterovirus 71 infection in Taiwan. New England Journal of Medicine, 341(13), (Web Link)

[3] Solomon, T., Lewthwaite, P., Perera, D., Cardosa, M.J., McMinn, P. and Ooi, M.H., 2010. Virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control of enterovirus 71. The Lancet infectious diseases, 10(11), (Web Link)

[4] Glutathione facilitates enterovirus assembly by binding at a druggable pocket
Helen M. E. Duyvesteyn, Jingshan Ren, Thomas S. Walter, Elizabeth E. Fry & David I. Stuart
Communications Biology volume 3, (Web Link)

[5] Kofi Odoom, J., Adziati, I., Quansah, E., Attiku, K., Afia Asante Ntim, N., Arthur-Quarm, J., Eshun, M., Obodai, E. and Samson Barnor, J. (2018) “High Serotype Diversity of Non-polio Enteroviruses Isolated in Ghana during Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance, 2010-2014”, Advances in Research, 16(6), (Web Link)

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