Latest Research News on Bone Marrow: Jan – 2020

Osteogenesis in transplants of bone marrow cells

After heterotopic (e.g. subcutaneous) transplantation of bone marrow, haemopoiesis within the graft ceases; reticular tissue develops instead, and later bone is made (Denis, 1958). The result are often achieved by grafting either free pieces of bone marrow or those placed in diffusion chambers (Petrakova, Tolmacheva & Friedenstein, 1963; Rosin, Freiberg & Sajnek, 1963). within the case of free transplantation the bone formed is later crammed with bone marrow. After transplantation in diffusion chambers haemopoiesis doesn’t recur despite the event of a substantial mass of bone within the chambers (Friedenstein, 1965). [1]

Liver from bone marrow in humans

It has been shown in animal models that hepatocytes and cholangiocytes can derive from bone marrow cells. we’ve investigated whether such a process occurs in humans. Archival autopsy and biopsy liver specimens were obtained from 2 female recipients of therapeutic bone marrow transplantations with male donors and from 4 male recipients of orthotopic liver transplantations from female donors. Immunohistochemical staining with antibody CAM5.2, specific for cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19, gave typical strong staining of hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and ductular reactions altogether tissues, to the exclusion of all nonepithelial cells. Slides were systematically photographed then restained by fluorescence in place hybridization (FISH) for X and Y chromosomes. Using morphologic criteria, field‐by‐field comparison of the fluorescent images with the prior photomicrographs, and persistence of the diaminiobenzidene (DAB) stain through the FISH protease digestion, Y‐positive hepatocytes and cholangiocytes might be identified in male control liver tissue and altogether study specimens. [2]

Human bone marrow colony growth in agar‐gel

A technique for growing human bone marrow cell colonies in agar‐gel medium is described. “Feeder layers” containing 1 × 106 normal human peripheral white blood cells are used because the stimulus for colony growth. Human bone marrow aspirates are collected in heparinized syringes and plated as 2 × 105 cells on “feeder layers.” Normal human bone marrow yields 32–102 colonies per 2 × 105 cells plated. Colonies are almost exclusively granulocytic. rate of growth of colonies is slower than with mouse bone marrow but colonies reach a comparable size (500–1500 cells) at days 12–16. [3]

A Wnt-mediated transformation of the bone marrow stromal cell identity orchestrates skeletal regeneration

Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are versatile mesenchymal cell populations underpinning the main functions of the skeleton, a majority of which adjoin sinusoidal blood vessels and express C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12). However, how these cells are activated during regeneration and facilitate osteogenesis remains largely unknown. Cell-lineage analysis using Cxcl12-creER mice reveals that quiescent Cxcl12-creER+ perisinusoidal BMSCs differentiate into cortical bone osteoblasts solely during regeneration. A combined single cell RNA-seq analysis demonstrate that these cells convert their identity into a skeletal stem cell-like state in response to injury, related to upregulation of osteoblast-signature genes and activation of canonical Wnt signaling components along the single-cell trajectory. [4]

The Passage Effect on the Senescence Profile of Cryopreserved Bone Marrow and Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Background: Although bone marrow is the ‘gold standard’ MSC source, fat has become a promising alternative source. Passage and cryopreservation are two effective methods to multiply, pool, and store MSC without altering its function

Aims: to research the passage effects on the senescence profile of cryopreserved bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).

Study Design: Analytical observational study.

Place and Duration of Study: somatic cell Medical Technology Integrated Service Unit, Faculty of drugs , Universitas Indonesia—Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia, during the amount of April to September 2016. [5]

Reference

[1] Friedenstein, A.J., Piatetzky-Shapiro, I.I. and Petrakova, K.V., 1966. Osteogenesis in transplants of bone marrow cells. Development, 16(3), (Web Link)

[2] Theise, N.D., Nimmakayalu, M., Gardner, R., Illei, P.B., Morgan, G., Teperman, L., Henegariu, O. and Krause, D.S., 2000. Liver from bone marrow in humans. Hepatology, 32(1), (Web Link)

[3] Pike, B.L. and Robinson, W.A., 1970. Human bone marrow colony growth in agar‐gel. Journal of cellular physiology, 76(1), (Web Link)

[4] A Wnt-mediated transformation of the bone marrow stromal cell identity orchestrates skeletal regeneration
Yuki Matsushita, Mizuki Nagata, Kenneth M. Kozloff, Joshua D. Welch, Koji Mizuhashi, Nicha Tokavanich, Shawn A. Hallett, Daniel C. Link, Takashi Nagasawa, Wanida Ono & Noriaki Ono
Nature Communications volume 11, (Web Link)

[5] Ismail, H. D., Arif, S., Pawitan, J. A. and Anggraeni, R. (2018) “The Passage Effect on the Senescence Profile of Cryopreserved Bone Marrow and Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells”, Annual Research & Review in Biology, 24(1), (Web Link)

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