Latest Research News on Artesunate: Nov – 2019

Declining Artesunate-Mefloquine Efficacy against Falciparum Malaria on the Cambodia–Thailand Border

Resistance to several antimalaria medicine developed on the Cambodia–Thailand border long before developing elsewhere. as a result of antimalaria resistance is currently a world downside, artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) area unit the first-line therapies in most malaria-endemic countries. However, recent clinical and molecular studies counsel the emergence of ACT-resistant Plasmodium falciparum infections within the Cambodia–Thailand border space, wherever commonplace ACT is artesunate and mefloquine hydrochloride. These ACT failures could be caused by high-level mefloquine hydrochloride resistance as a result of mefloquine hydrochloride was used for monotherapy long before the introduction of ACT. This observation raises a pair of queries. First, however will existing P. falciparum–resistant strains be controlled? Second, however will the evolution of recent ACT- resistant strains be avoided elsewhere, e.g., in Africa? social control of rational drug use and improved diagnostic capability area unit among the measures required to avoid and contain ACT resistance. [1]

The Antiviral Activities of Artemisinin and Artesunate

Traditional Chinese medication commands a novel position among all ancient medicines due to its 5000 years of history. Our own interest in natural merchandise from ancient Chinese medication was triggered within the Nineties, by artemisinin-type sesquiterpene lactones from Artemisia annua L. As incontestable  in recent years, this category of compounds has activity against protozoal infection, cancer cells, and bilharziasis. curiously, the bioactivity of artemisinin and its man-made by-product artesunate is even broader and includes the inhibition of sure viruses, like human herpes and alternative members of the Herpesviridae family (e.g., herpes simplex virus sort one and Epstein-Barr virus), hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and bovine infectious agent looseness of the bowels virus. [2]

The anti-malarial artesunate is also active against cancer

Artesunate (ART) may be a semi-synthetic spinoff of artemisinin, the active principle of the Chinese herb Artemisia annua. ART reveals outstanding activity against otherwise multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax protozoal infection. ART has currently been analyzed for its anti-cancer activity against fifty five cell lines of the organic process medical specialty Program of the National Cancer Institute, USA. ART was most active against malignant neoplastic disease and carcinoma cell lines (mean GI50 values: one.11±0.56 μM and a couple of.13±0.74 μM, respectively). Non-small cell carcinoma cell lines showed the best mean GI50 price (25.62±14.95 μM) indicating all-time low sensitivity towards ART during this check panel. Intermediate GI50 values were obtained for melanomas, breast, ovarian, prostate, CNS, and excretory organ neoplastic cell lines. significantly, a comparison of ART’s toxicity with those of alternative customary cytostatic medicine showed that ART was active in molar ranges resembling those of established anti-tumor medicine. [3]

Artesunate attenuates LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing TLR4/TRAF6 and PLCγ1-Ca2+-NFATc1 signaling pathway

In chronic infectious diseases caused by gram-negative bacterium, like osteitis, septic inflammatory disease, and periodontal disease, osteoclastic activity is increased with elevated inflammation, that disturbs the bone physiological condition and ends up in lysis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as a bacterium product, plays a crucial role during this method. Recent proof shows that AN antiprotozoal drug artesunate attenuates LPS-induced lysis freelance of RANKL. during this study we have a tendency to evaluated the consequences of artesunate on LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and femoris lysis in vivo, and explored the mechanisms underlying the consequences of artesunate on LPS-induced bone cell differentiation freelance of RANKL. [4]

Effect of Consumption of Artesunate and/or Palm Wine on Serum Electrolytes, Urea, Creatinine and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate

Aim: Artesunate (artemisinin derivative) bar is one in all the popular treatments for protozoal infection together with Plasmodium falciparum protozoal infection in African nation likewise as alternative tropical and subtropic countries. additionally wide consumed within the tropics for its style and alcohol content is palm wine. it’s not uncommon to seek out some people on artesunate medication overwhelming palm wine with the assumption that such a mixture makes protozoal infection treatment more practical. Therefore, this study is aimed toward assessing the consequences of artesunate intake and palm wine consumption on urinary organ operate.

Study Design: Thirty participants aged eighteen to thirty five years were every which way assigned  into three teams of ten persons per cluster namely; palm wine and artesunate, palm wine solely and artesunate solely teams. every cluster received their treatments for seven days. [5]

Reference

[1] Wongsrichanalai, C. and Meshnick, S.R., 2008. Declining artesunate-mefloquine efficacy against falciparum malaria on the Cambodia–Thailand border. Emerging infectious diseases, 14(5), (Web Link)

[2] Efferth, T., Romero, M.R., Wolf, D.G., Stamminger, T., Marin, J.J. and Marschall, M., 2008. The antiviral activities of artemisinin and artesunate. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 47(6), (Web Link)

[3] Efferth, T., Dunstan, H., Sauerbrey, A., Miyachi, H. and Chitambar, C.R., 2001. The anti-malarial artesunate is also active against cancer. International journal of oncology, 18(4), (Web Link)

[4] Artesunate attenuates LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing TLR4/TRAF6 and PLCγ1-Ca2+-NFATc1 signaling pathway
Xiang-zhou Zeng, Yue-yang Zhang, Qin Yang, Song Wang, Bin-hua Zou, Yan-hui Tan, Min Zou, Shu-wen Liu & Xiao-juan Li
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica (2019) (Web Link)

[5] Aniyom, D. D., Okon, U. E., Antai, A. B. and Osim, E. E. (2018) “Effect of Consumption of Artesunate and/or Palm Wine on Serum Electrolytes, Urea, Creatinine and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate”, Annual Research & Review in Biology, 28(1), (Web Link)

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