**[1] On the origin of gravity and the laws of Newton**

Starting from first principles and general assumptions we present a heuristic argument that shows that Newton’s law of gravitation naturally arises in a theory in which space emerges through a holographic scenario. Gravity is identified with an entropic force caused by changes in the information associated with the positions of material bodies. A relativistic generalization of the presented arguments directly leads to the Einstein equations. When space is emergent even Newton’s law of inertia needs to be explained. The equivalence principle auggests that it is actually the law of inertia whose origin is entropic.

**[2] Newton and the Dutch “Newtonians”: 1713–1750**

This chapter touches on various elements of the reception of Isaac Newton’s ideas in the Netherlands, in particular on three strands in the reception of the Principia. The first is the use, by a group of Amsterdam mathematicians including Bernard Nieuwentijt, of several of Newton’s theological ideas in order to combat Spinoza’s system. Second is Herman Boerhaave’s rather superficial use of Newton’s epistemological statements, which led Boerhaave to claim that Newton’s method would end controversies in science and ward off scepticism. Third are W.J. ’s Gravesande and Petrus van Musschenbroek, the most famous “Newtonians” of the Netherlands, who used certain themes of Newton in order to develop their own theories of knowledge. Taken together, these three strands show that Newton’s ideas were appropriated and developed in many different ways in the Netherlands. Differences and agreements between the strands can shed new light on the development of “Newtonianism” in the Netherlands.

**[3] High Order Thinking Skills Students Through Multi-Representation Test on Newtons Law Study**

This study aims to describe higher-order thinking skills in Newton’s law study based on a multi-representation test. The methods used quantitative descriptive and implemented on one of the class X High School in Surabaya academic year 2019/2020. The questions that tested were verbal, graphic, visual, or mathematically representations consist of the ability to analyse, evaluate, and create adjusted cognitive domain in Bloom’s taxonomy revised. Validity and reliability instrument test in this study with help Winstep software. Based on the result of the analysis, it was found high order thinking skill student in the high category of 42 %, high order thinking skill student in the middle category of 16 %, and high order thinking skill student in the low category of 42 %. Higher-order thinking skills had categorized as enough. Average value person logit equals -0.95 which means that more students answered incorrectly on the questions were tested. Student’s ability in representing physics knowledge shows how the student’s level of understanding.

**[4] Quantum Corrections to the Newton’s Law from the Galilean Limit of Quantum Gravity**

In this work the author derives the Galilean limit of the quantum gravity obtained by using the hydrodynamic approach. The result shows that the quantum interaction generates, in the limit of weak gravity, a non-zero contribution. The paper derives the small deviation from the Newtonian law due to the quantum gravity and analyzes the experimental features to validate the theoretical model. The work also shows that in the frame of the quantum gravity the equivalence principle between the inertial and gravitational mass can be violated in very extreme conditions.

**[5] Application of Newton’s Zero Order Caustic for Analysis and Measurement: Part-I Absorbance**

When light is incident upon a liquid solution droplet containing a light absorbing solute and it is formed into a spheroid shape, absorbance can be measured and related to concentration of the light absorbing species in a manner analogous to standard spectrophotometry. However, the spheroid sample acts as a focusing lens through the method of Newton’s zero order caustic resulting in a higher intensity of light within the sample and light that reaches the detector. As a result, linearity of the Beer-Lambert law can be observed without stray light correction at values of absorbance greater than 1. Also, fluorescence can be observed using lower excitation energy than what would normally be required. In order to illustrate measurement and detection, using Newton’s zero order caustic, solutions of two food dyes (Brilliant Blue FCF and tartrazine) were studied using matching red (660 nm) and blue (430 nm) photodiodes.

**Reference**

**[1] **Verlinde, E., 2011. On the Origin of Gravity and the Laws of Newton. *Journal of High Energy Physics*, *2011*(4), pp.1-27.

**[2] **Ducheyne, S. and van Besouw, J., 2017. Newton and the Dutch “Newtonians”: 1713–1750. In *The Oxford Handbook of Newton*.

**[3] **Puspitaningrum, H.Z. and Prastowo, T., 2021, March. High Order Thinking Skills Students Through Multi-Representation Test on Newtons Law Study. In *Journal of Physics: Conference Series* (Vol. 1805, No. 1, p. 012010). IOP Publishing.

**[4] **Chiarelli, P., 2017. Quantum Corrections to the Newton’s Law from the Galilean Limit of Quantum Gravity. *Physical Science International Journal*, pp.1-16.

**[5] **Garcia, A.A., Nuñez, L., John, C., Hadish, H., Orioke, V. and Mujica, V., 2014. Application of Newton’s zero order caustic for analysis and measurement: Part-I absorbance. *International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry*, pp.46-59.